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Redundancy in analysis, design, and operations is an important element in a flexible management strategy. The practice, for example, of having independent planning and evaluation groups inside and outside the organization working on the same question can prevent an insulated “in-group” from ignoring information and independent judgments by well-qualified outsiders. A single, overly centralized locus for dynamic modeling is particularly important to avoid; redundancy is especially desirable for understanding and communicating the changing information on risks and uncertainties. Multiple learning centers—well-funded research units under independent organizations, including the host area for the repository, that engage in basic research, data collection, and monitoring—can contribute to a more flexible waste management organization with a greater capacity to overcome mistakes while building confidence among interested and affected parties. Alternative repository sites and/ or alternative plans for staging and timing of emplacement, as well as monitoring, are needed. Societal discussion should be engaged on resource allocation for components of a waste management program. Many elements of such a management strategy probably can be undertaken without significant additional net cost and arguably could contribute to net efficiency in terms of confidence building.

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