10.  

Palincsar, 1986.

11.  

Palincsar, 1986.

12.  

National Research Council, 2005 (Stewart et al., 2005, Chapter 12).

13.  

Aleven and Koedinger, 2002.

14.  

For example, he highlights core concepts conspicuously. In his first lecture, he asks, “If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generation of creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is the atomic hypothesis that all things are made of atoms—little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another.

15.  

Even with experience, the thinking of individual students may be unanticipated by the teacher.

16.  

Feynman, 1995, p. 25.

REFERENCES

Aleven, V., and Koedinger, K. (2002). An effective metacognitive strategy: Learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based cognitive tutor. Cognitive Science, 26, 147-179.


Egan, K. (1986). Teaching as story telling: An alternative approach to teaching and curriculum in the elementary school (vol. iii). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Feynman, R.P. (1995). Six easy pieces: Essentials of physics explained by its most brilliant teacher. Reading, MA: Perseus Books.


Griffin, S., and Case, R. (1995). Re-thinking the primary school math curriculum: An approach based on cognitive science. Issues in Education, 3(1), 1-49.


Kalchman, M., Moss, J., and Case, R. (2001). Psychological models for the development of mathematical understanding: Rational numbers and functions. In S. Carver and D. Klahr (Eds.), Cognition and instruction: Twenty-five years of progress (pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Ma, L. (1999). Knowing and teaching elementary mathematics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Moss, J., and Case, R. (1999). Developing children’s understanding of rational numbers: A new model and experimental curriculum. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30(2).


Palincsar, A.S. (1986). Reciprocal teaching: Teaching reading as thinking. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.


Stewart, J., Cartier, J.L., and Passmore, C.M. (2005). Developing understanding through model-based inquiry. In National Research Council, How students learn: History,mathematics, and science in the classroom. Committee on How People Learn, A Targeted Report for Teachers, M.S. Donovan and J.D. Bransford (Eds.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


White, B., and Fredrickson, J. (1998). Inquiry, modeling and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 6(1), 3-117.



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