14.  

Brophy and VanSledright, 1997, p. 130.

15.  

Lee et al., 1997, p. 236.

16.  

Lee et al., 1996a, 1997.

17.  

Dickinson and Lee, 1984, p. 134.

18.  

Shemilt, 1980, p. 33.

19.  

Shemilt, 2000, pp. 89-92.

20.  

Shemilt, 1980, pp. 30-32.

21.  

Lee et al., 1998.

22.  

Martin, 1989, pp. 58-61.

23.  

Shemilt, 1987; Lee et al., 1996a.

24.  

Thomas, 1993.

25.  

Ashby, 1993.

26.  

Wineburg, 1998; Wineburg and Fournier, 1994.

27.  

Lee and Ashby, 2000.

28.  

Barca, 1997; Cercadillo, 2000.

29.  

Lee and Ashby, 2000.

30.  

Furnham, 1992; Berti, 1994; Delval, 1992; Torney-Purta, 1992.

31.  

Berti and Andriolo, 2001.

32.  

Berti and Vanni, 2002.

33.  

Ibid., 2002.

34.  

Berti and Andriolo, 2001.

35.  

Furnham, 1992, pp. 19, 25, 26.

36.  

Seixas, 1993; Penuel and Wertsch, 1998; Wertsch and Rozin, 1998; Wineburg, 2000.

37.  

Lowenthal, 1985.

REFERENCES

Ashby, R. (1993). Pilot study on students’ use of evidence. Unpublished study, Essex, England.

Ashby, R., and Lee, P.J. (1987). Children’s concepts of empathy and understanding in history. In C. Portal (Ed.), The history curriculum for teachers. London, England: Falmer Press.


Barca, I. (1997). Adolescent ideas about provisional historical explanation. (Portuguese translation for publishing at CEEP.) Braga, Portugal: Universidade do Minho.

Barton, K.C. (1996). Narrative simplifications in elementary students’ historical thinking. In J. Brophy (Ed.), Advances in research on teaching: Teaching and learning history, vol. 6. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Barton, K.C. (1999). Best not to forget them: Positionality and students’ ideas about significance in Northern Ireland. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal.

Barton, K.C. (2001). A sociocultural perspective on children’s understanding of historical change: Comparative findings from Northern Ireland and the United States. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 881-891.



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