■ Practice environment—process redesign

Pommerenke and Dietrich, 1992a, 1992b; Berwick, 1996, 1998; Berwick and Nolan, 1998; Nelson et al., 1998

 

■ The Plan, Do, Study Act (PDSA) cycle and others

■ Clear roles

■ Patient flow

■ Organized follow-up

 

■ Organizational environment—to make identification of the need for and delivery of the services a routine part of care

Shekelle et al., 2000

 

■ Rules or policies

McGowan and Finland, 1974; Durbin et al., 1981; Vayda and Mindell, 1982; Ruchlin et al., 1982; Martin et al., 1982; Gryskiewicz and Detmer, 1983; Wong et al., 1983

■ Top management support, such as enlisting the aid of the CEO

Shekelle et al., 2000

■ Clinical computing systems

Thompson, 1996; Nelson et al., 1998

Interventions designed to reinforce the program

■ Measurement and feedback

Schroeder et al., 1973; Griner, 1979; Hillman et al., 1979; Young, 1980; Check, 1980; Eisenberg and Williams, 1981; Myers and Schroeder, 1981; Eisenberg, 1982; Rosser, 1983; Thompson et al., 1983; Wong et al., 1983; Fineberg et al., 1983; Haynes et al., 1984; Winickoff et al., 1984; Gehlbach et al., 1984; Marton et al., 1985; McPhee et al., 1989; Nattinger et al., 1989; Oxman et al., 1995

■ Financial incentives for professionals

Larson, 1999

■ Requirement for accreditation measurement: Healthplan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) and other accrediting organizational requirements

Dalzell, 1998, 1999; Eddy, 1998



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