publicity about their work in the local dental journal. Participation in the statewide education program, however, was low (Needleman et al., 1995).

NURSING

Nursing education does include attention to family violence, particularly child abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence. In one major study, responses from 298 schools (48 percent of the total; 85 percent baccalaureate degree or higher) indicated that all of the responding schools of nursing had at least some family violence-related content in their curricula, but only 53 percent of the schools felt that content was adequately addressed (Woodtli and Breslin, 1996). In spite of reports of content in baccalaureate schools of nursing, a regional random sample survey of 1,571 practicing clinicians in six disciplines including nursing demonstrated that more than one-third of these practicing clinicians reported no educational content in family violence (Tilden et al., 1994).

Content on child abuse and neglect was systematically integrated into almost all nursing curricula and texts in the late 1960s and 1970s, primarily as a result of national legislation and publicity on the subject. The Woodtli and Breslin (1996) study indicates that child abuse and neglect were addressed by 90 percent of the schools and that child abuse had the greatest number of separate classroom hours devoted to it, with 56 percent of schools indicating 3 or more hours on the topic.

Attention to intimate partner violence in the literature on nursing research and practice appears to be increasing, accompanied by professional association and curriculum development. Curriculum content on intimate partner violence has increased with official nursing organization attention to the issue (e.g., American Nurses Association [ANA], 1995; American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 1999; American College of Nurse Midwives [ACNM], 1997; Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses [AWHONN], 2000; Emergency Nurses Association [ENA], 1998; Paluzzi and Quimby, 1998). A total of 91 percent of schools reported addressing intimate partner violence (Woodtli and Breslin, 1996). One-third of the programs reported specifically planned and professionally guided learning experiences in clinical settings (primarily domestic violence shelters) that particularly focused on aspects of family violence.1

The area of elder abuse has received the least attention and is represented

1  

Some preliminary or indirect descriptive-level evidence from attitude surveys and course evaluations suggests that guided clinical experience focusing on families experiencing violence and settings in which violence occurs is most effective in teaching clinical nursing skills on violence against women (Barnett et al., 1992; Campbell and Humphreys, 1993; King, 1988).



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