women in 1987 and 1991, calling for routine screening for domestic violence and “routine education” of nurses. The Emergency Nursing Association, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses, the American Association of Orthopedic Nursing, and the National Black Nurses’ Association have also passed resolutions recognizing violence against women and intimate partner violence as areas of nursing concern, calling for increased nursing and other health care professional education. In 1997, the National Nursing Summit on Violence Against Women, under the auspices of the U.S. Public Health Service’s Office on Women’s Health of the Department of Health and Human Services, also called for preprofessional classroom and clinical content on violence against women. This was followed by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing position paper in 1999 calling for the same and detailing the objectives and the type of content to be included (see Chapter 6 for details). With a grant from the Health Research and Services Administration, the American College of Nurse Midwives included violence against women systematically in the education of its professionals. It developed a curriculum for basic education and continuing education materials and ensured ongoing attention to the issue through inclusion in certification exams and monitoring of programs for appropriate content (see Figure 4.2).
The Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family of the American Psychological Association (1996) provided a general review of relevant research and considered psychology’s potential contributions to responses to child abuse and neglect, intimate partner violence, and elder maltreatment. The task force appeared to start from an assumption that training about family violence for psychologists and other service providers has typically been inadequate, a perception echoed by most clinical psychologists themselves, especially those trained prior to 1985 (Pope and Feldman-Summers, 1992). The task force concluded (APA, 1996):
Each year, large numbers of families who are victimized by violence seek help at a time of critical need, and they often are unable to locate professionals with specific training to help them take steps to stop violence at home and heal from their trauma. This situation is, in part, a consequence of the presently fragmented and irregular nature of professional education and training in family violence evidence interventions. Individual practitioners without institutional support conduct a great deal of family violence intervention training; university programs for training and research in these specialized interventions are rare. There is a pressing need for stable institutional resources with a critical mass of expertise to test promising new interventions, to train newcomers to the field, and to disseminate information about successful intervention models to practitioners in several professions. It is important to begin teaching about family violence in undergraduate psychology curricula and to integrate studies of trauma and violence throughout all levels of psychology education. (pp. 134-135)
The task force specifically recommended that “routine screening for a history