aIncludes data for 43 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 1989, 45 states and DC in 1990, 46 states and DC in 1991-1993, and 46 states, DC, and New York City (NYC) in 1995-1996. Excludes data for California, Indiana, New York (but includes NYC in 1994-1996), and South Dakota (1989-1996), Oklahoma (1898-1990), and Louisiana and Nebraska (1989), which did not require the reporting of the mother’s tobacco use during pregnancy on the birth certificate.
bExcludes live births for whom smoking status of the mother is unknown.
cMaternal tobacco use during pregnancy was not reported on the birth certificates of California and New York, which during 1989-1991 together accounted for 43-66 percent of the births in each Asian subgroup (except Hawaiian).
SOURCE: Data from Ventura et al. (1999), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Natoinal Vital Statistics System.
et al., 1998). Animal studies of cocaine exposure at very high levels show effects on growth, but behavioral and cognitive consequences have not yet been established (Paule, 1998).
Nutrition and Development
Children who are seriously malnourished tend to have low IQs (Stein and Kassab, 1970; Winick et al., 1975; Zeskind and Ramey, 1978, 1981). Malnourishment, however, is generally coincident with other stressors— including poverty, poor schooling, and neglect—that make it difficult to identify the impact of malnutrition alone (Sigman and Whaley, 1998). Moreover, malnutrition has been found in some studies to affect motivational and emotional responsiveness (Galler et al., 1983; Sigman and Whaley, 1998), suggesting that the effect on cognition may be mediated, at least in part, through reduced attention and interaction.