FIGURE 3-16 Percentage of first-time kindergartners recognizing the words by sight, by number of risk factors: Fall 1998 and Spring 1999.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999.

often not equipped with the necessary skills to develop healthy peer and adult relationships later on (Goldstein et al., 1980; Patterson, 1986; Patterson et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1987). We also know that aggressive and violent boys differ from less aggressive boys on measures of interpersonal problem solving, with the scores of aggressive and violent boys dem-

FIGURE 3-17 Percentage of first-time kindergartners adding and subtracting, by number of risk factors: Fall 1998 and Spring 1999.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999.



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