ing and learning issues related to the academic achievement of language minority students in public school settings. He has a Ph.D. in educational psychology and special education from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Bennett A. Shaywitz is professor of pediatrics and neurology and director of pediatric neurology at the Yale University School of Medicine. His research uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study children with dyslexia, and he currently leads a research group that is using this technology to investigate the neural basis of reading, dyslexia, and most recently mathematics disability. These ongoing studies have resulted in the first demonstration of sex differences in the functional organization of the brain for higher cognitive function. Recently he and his colleagues have used this technology to discover differences in brain organization and function in children and adults with dyslexia, and he now uses fMRI to study how the brain changes as children with dyslexia are taught to read. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. With his wife, Sally Shaywitz, he was the recipient of the 2001 Leonard Apt lectureship of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the 2001 inaugural Samuel T. Orton and June Lyday Orton lectureship of the International Dyslexia Association.

Margaret Beale Spencer is professor of education and psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. She also serves as director of the Center for Health, Achievement, Neighborhood, Growth, and Ethnic Studies (CHANGES) and the W.E.B. Du Bois Collective Research Institute at the university. She is the principal investigator for the center’s multiethnic longitudinal studies, including project PAC (Promotion of Academic Competence), a five-year longitudinal project that represents a sample of extremely impoverished, southern, inner-city, and mostly male adolescents. Her research interests include exploring the predictors of resiliency by examining the interface between physiological functioning, socioemotional development, and undergirding cognitive processes as linked to context character. She focuses on gender, race, and ethnic patterns in her program of developmental research, which has been published as edited volumes, as well as numerous articles and chapters. She serves on several editorial review boards and as a board member and trustee of the National 4-H Council and the Foundation for Child Development. She has a Ph.D. in child and developmental psychology from the University of Chicago.

Edward Lee Vargas currently serves as superintendent for the Hacienda La Puente Unified School District in Los Angeles County, California. Formerly he was superintendent of the Ysleta Independent School District, the highest-achieving of all large urban districts in Texas, and has 25 years of



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