Multiple Disabilities: The risk index across racial/ethnic groups for multiple disabilities is 0.23 percent, with lower risk for Hispanics (RI = 0.19 percent) and Asian/Pacific Islander (RI = 0.14 percent). Risks for all other groups are extremely similar (whites RI = 0.25 percent; blacks RI = 0.27 percent; American Indian/Alaskan Natives RI = 0.28 percent). Examination of the odds ratios contrasting the four racial/ethnic groups with white students suggests that American Indian/Alaskan Native and black students have about the same probability of being served in special education on the basis of qualifying as having multiple disabilities, with Hispanic students being slightly less likely (OR = 0.7). Asian/Pacific Islander students are approximately half as likely to be so served (OR = 0.55).
Deaf-Blindness: In this extremely low-incidence condition, fluctuations of only a few cases can result in higher risk. Only American Indian/Alaskan Native and Asian/Pacific Islander children have risk indices that reach 0.01 percent. The odds ratios for the two racial/ethnic groups suggest higher rates than that found for whites. Most pronounced is the odds ratio for Asian/Pacific Islander (2.88), yet, as noted previously, the risk index for this group is 0.01 percent. The odds ratio for American Indian/Alaskan Natives suggests approximately half again the proportion of cases (OR = 1.52) found among white students. The odds ratio for black students (OR = .68) reveals a lower rate of deaf-blindness than among white students, while the rate for Hispanic students (OR = .93) is comparable to that for white students. The very small numbers (smallest of any disability category) urge caution in interpreting these figures.
Autism: The national risk for autism across racial/ethnic groups is 0.12 percent. Risk indices range from a low of 0.07 percent (American Indian/ Alaskan Natives) to 0.14 percent for Asian/Pacific Islander and black students. Odds ratios reveal slightly higher rates of autism for black (OR = 1.21) and Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.17) students when compared with the rates for whites, while rates for American Indian/Alaskan Native and Hispanic students are considerably lower than is found among white students.
Traumatic Brain Injury: The national risk index across racial and ethnic groups for traumatic brain injury is 0.03 percent. Variability in risk across racial/ethnic groups is quite small, ranging from 0.02 percent (Asian/ Pacific Islander) to 0.04 percent (American Indian/Alaskan Natives). Odds ratios indicate slightly higher rates of identification for American Indian/ Alaskan Natives (OR = 1.23) than is found for white students, with rates for the other three groups being lower than that found among white students.