The committee has come to a sobering conclusion: given what is now known about human learning, transformation of advanced study is imperative. Accordingly, the committee presents in this report a framework and a set of guidelines for assessing and designing advanced study. This framework was constructed on the basis of current knowledge about how people learn and about the nature of subject matter expertise. Advanced study programs that are aligned with this framework and the attendant principles will foster deep, robust conceptual understanding. They also will make such deep learning accessible to a broader range of students, because the principles of learning and of program design set forth here (1) recognize multiple ways of thinking and (2) support a wide range of perspectives and practices in the school curriculum. The complex, authentic, multidimensional learning opportunities that could be designed following the committee’s model could make it possible for all children to discover and use their unique strengths to engage in learning at a deep conceptual level.