courses but not the exams? What is the impact on colleges of the large numbers of students earning credit through advanced study? Answers to such questions are urgently needed if the programs are to improve. Given the large and growing investment in this segment of secondary education, a substantial research effort is justified. Both public and private agencies should be prepared to assist in sponsoring this research. The various parties, including the agencies and the programs, should consider how to ensure independent review of the results. The College Board and the IBO should develop ways to incorporate the results of this recommended research systematically into the ongoing improvement of their programs.