Index

A

AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science

Ability grouping in mathematics, in preparing for advanced study in middle school, 39-40

Academic competitions, for enrichment, 115

Access to advanced study, 191-192

implementing prerequisites, 192

inequalities in, 4

limiting students’ access to AP and IB, 191-192

recommendations, 12, 198-199

Access to Excellence, 65

Accountability

demands for, 19, 30n

role and influence of, 31-32

ACT. See American College Testing Program

Admissions. See College admission decisions

Advanced critical and creative thinking skills, in high-ability learners, 132

Advanced Placement (AP) program, 1, 20-21, 64-82.

See also AP and IB programs

assessment, 75-79

Calculus Development Committee, 67

college credit and placement in, 192-194

course descriptions and teacher’s guides, 72-74

curriculum, 66-71

instruction, 71-75

professional development, 79-82

role in college admission decisions, 55-57

Technical Manual, 181

using for placement or exemption from required courses, 58-59

Advanced study

components of, 3-4

connections between advanced study and higher education, 51-63

context of, 2-5, 28-63

defining, 1n, 22

disparities in opportunities to pursue and succeed in, 47-51

educational context, 36-47

financing programs at the local level, 33

as a link between high school and college, 52-57

opportunities and approaches to, 103-116

overview of, 5-6, 22-23

policy context, 29-36

primary goal of, 1n

role in college admission decisions, 53-57

secondary-postsecondary interface, 4-5

unequal access to, 4

urgent need to transform, 153

AERA. See American Educational Research Association

AFT. See American Federation of Teachers

Alternative means of problem solving, by high-ability learners, 131

Alternatives for providing college-level learning in high school, 103-113

collaborative programs, 104-105

college courses taught in high schools, 105

college-sponsored enrichment programs, 108

concurrent enrollment, 106-108

curricular and instructional approaches for enrichment, 115-116

distance learning, 109-110



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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Index A AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science Ability grouping in mathematics, in preparing for advanced study in middle school, 39-40 Academic competitions, for enrichment, 115 Access to advanced study, 191-192 implementing prerequisites, 192 inequalities in, 4 limiting students’ access to AP and IB, 191-192 recommendations, 12, 198-199 Access to Excellence, 65 Accountability demands for, 19, 30n role and influence of, 31-32 ACT. See American College Testing Program Admissions. See College admission decisions Advanced critical and creative thinking skills, in high-ability learners, 132 Advanced Placement (AP) program, 1, 20-21, 64-82. See also AP and IB programs assessment, 75-79 Calculus Development Committee, 67 college credit and placement in, 192-194 course descriptions and teacher’s guides, 72-74 curriculum, 66-71 instruction, 71-75 professional development, 79-82 role in college admission decisions, 55-57 Technical Manual, 181 using for placement or exemption from required courses, 58-59 Advanced study components of, 3-4 connections between advanced study and higher education, 51-63 context of, 2-5, 28-63 defining, 1n, 22 disparities in opportunities to pursue and succeed in, 47-51 educational context, 36-47 financing programs at the local level, 33 as a link between high school and college, 52-57 opportunities and approaches to, 103-116 overview of, 5-6, 22-23 policy context, 29-36 primary goal of, 1n role in college admission decisions, 53-57 secondary-postsecondary interface, 4-5 unequal access to, 4 urgent need to transform, 153 AERA. See American Educational Research Association AFT. See American Federation of Teachers Alternative means of problem solving, by high-ability learners, 131 Alternatives for providing college-level learning in high school, 103-113 collaborative programs, 104-105 college courses taught in high schools, 105 college-sponsored enrichment programs, 108 concurrent enrollment, 106-108 curricular and instructional approaches for enrichment, 115-116 distance learning, 109-110

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools dual-enrollment, 105-106 overview of, 6 recommendations, 14, 202 specialized schools, 108-109 web-based courses, 111-113 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 3, 31, 43, 177 Project 2061, 161 American College Testing (ACT) Program, 53 American Educational Research Association (AERA), 180-182, 186 American Federation of Teachers (AFT), 36, 42 American Psychological Association (APA), 180-182, 186 American Youth Policy Forum, 42 AP. See Advanced Placement program AP and IB effects on schools, 187-188 evaluating school quality by the numbers, 188 ranking schools by the number of AP or IB tests taken, 187-188 AP and IB programs, 8-11, 154-184, 259-260 assessment, 10, 180-183 context and consequences, 260 differences among learners, 9, 166-168 examination grades and the admission process, 57 instruction, 10, 178-180 learning, 259 learning communities, 9, 170-172 learning in context, 172-174 limited access to, 191-192 metacognition, 8, 164-166 motivation, 9, 168-170 principled conceptual knowledge, 8, 156-159 prior knowledge, 8, 160-164 professional development, 10-11, 183-184 situated learning, 9 teaching, 259-260 APA. See American Psychological Association APEX Learning Systems, 111n, 112 Assessment, 7-8, 20 findings, 235, 243, 247 formative, 163-164 internal, 92 recommendations, 13, 201, 237-238, 245, 249 for understanding, 8, 144, 147 Assessment in AP and IB programs, 10, 180-183 consequential validity of AP and IB assessments, 182-183 examination design and development, 180 support for inferences drawn from assessment results, 181-182 Assessment in the AP program, 75-79 College Board determinations about AP examinations and their purpose, 78-79 College Board recommendations about granting college credit for AP examinations, 77 developing examinations, 75-77 reporting examinations, 78 scoring examinations, 77 Assessment in the educational system, 141-146 reliability, validity, and fairness, 143 Assessment in the IB programme, 94-100 criteria for IB experimental sciences courses, 90 developing assessments, 95-96 reporting assessments, 98-100 scoring assessments, 96-98 Association of American Colleges and Universities, 106 “Average” defined, 177 B Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 31 Biology panel, 233-238 principal findings, 233-235 recommendations, 236-238 Boredom, of high-ability learners, 131-132 Boston University, Program in Mathematics for Young Scientists, 114 Breadth versus depth, of principled conceptual knowledge, 156-157 Bush, George W., 21 C Calculus findings of the mathematics panel on impact of, 248

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools history of AP reform, 178n Calculus Development Committee, 67 Calculus for a New Century, 169n Campbell, Paul, 85n, 195 Capacity for learning, underestimated in high-ability learners, 132 Caperton, Gasper, 72 Carnegie classifications, for ranking undergraduate institutions, 54 Carson, Eugene, 182 CCSSO. See Council of Chief State School Officers CEEB. See College Entrance Examination Board Center for Talented Youth, 108n Certification of teachers, 35 CFAPP. See Commission on the Future of the Advanced Placement Program Changes in the AP and IB programs, 14-15, 203-205 College Board and IBO assessment practice, 14, 203-204 College Board and IBO developing research in the implementation of their programs, 15, 204-205 College Board and IBO providing assistance to schools, 15, 204 College Board and IBO providing guidance in the use of examination scores, 15, 204 College Board and IBO responsibility for appropriate instructional approaches, 14, 204 College Board exercising quality control over the AP trademark, 14-15, 204 College Board practice in designing AP courses, 14, 203 recommendations, 14-15, 203-205 Charter schools, 109 Chemistry panel, 239-241 principal findings, 239 recommendations, 239-241 Class Struggle: What’s Wrong (and Right) with America’s Best Public High Schools, 185 Class.com, 111n CLEP. See College-Level Examination Program Clinton, William, 111n Collaborative programs, providing college-level learning in high school, 104-105 College admission decisions process of, 53-55 recommendations, 203 role of advanced study in, 53-57 role of AP and IB in, 55-57 College and university scientists and mathematicians, modifying their introductory courses, 14, 203 College Board, 1, 9-10, 15n, 18n assessment practice, 14, 203-204 Commission on the Future of the Advanced Placement Program, 22, 65, 81-82, 154 determining whether AP examinations accomplish their purpose, 78-79 developing research in the implementation of its programs, 15, 204-205 Equity 2000, 168 exercising quality control over the AP trademark, 14-15, 204 granting students college credit for AP examinations, 77 membership in, 20n Pathways Programs, 168 practice in designing AP courses, 14, 53, 203 providing assistance to schools, 15, 204 providing guidance in the use of examination scores, 15, 61, 204 recommendations concerning assessment practice, 14, 203-204 recommendations concerning assistance to schools, 15, 204 recommendations concerning guidance in the use of examination scores, 15, 204 recommendations concerning research in the implementation of their programs, 15, 204-205 recommendations concerning responsibility for appropriate instructional approaches, 14, 204 responsibility for appropriate instructional approaches, 14, 204 support from the Educational Testing Service, 64 Vertical Teams initiative, 38n, 82n, 168 College courses taught in high school, 105 College credit and placement, 192-196 AP program, 192-194

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools based on advanced study, 58-61 denial of credit or placement, 60-61 IB program, 194-196 institutional decisions, 60 reducing time to degree, 58 using AP and IB for placement or exemption from required courses, 58-59 College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB), 18, 20, 157, 190. See also College Board College-high school interface. See Secondary-postsecondary interface College-Level Examination Program (CLEP), 103n College-sponsored enrichment programs, in high schools, 108 Commission on the Future of the Advanced Placement Program (CFAPP), 22, 65, 81-82, 154 Committee on Education Finance, 33n Components of advanced study, 3-4 coordination, 3 curricular differentiation, 3 sequencing, 3 standards, 3-4 students, 4 teachers, 3 Computer-based multimedia courses, 112-113 Concept maps, 124-125 in assessment, 144 Conceptual knowledge, principled, 118-120 Conceptual learning, in principled conceptual knowledge, 158-159 Concurrent enrollment, providing college-level learning in high school, 106-108 Connections among disparate bodies of knowledge, high-ability learners’ capacity to make easily, 132-133 Consequential validity, of AP and IB assessments, 182-183 “Constrained” curriculum model, 41 Content of AP courses, 67-68 of IB courses, 87-89 Content panels, 250-252 biology panel, 233-238 charge to, 250 chemistry panel, 239-241 curricular and conceptual frameworks for learning, 250-251 emphases, 252 mathematics panel, 246-249 physics panel, 242-245 preparation for further study, 252 role of assessment, 251 teaching, 251 Coordination of advanced study, 3 of courses, 161-162 Core curriculum approach, 41 Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), 33, 37, 44 Course content, evolution of, 232 Creative thinking skills, high-ability learners advanced in, 132 Critical thinking skills, high-ability learners advanced in, 132 Curricular differentiation, in advanced study, 3 Curriculum, 7-8 in the educational system, 135-137 findings, 233-234, 242, 246 preparing for advanced study in high school, 40-42 recommendations, 13, 199-200, 236-237, 239-240, 244-245 for understanding, 135, 138 Curriculum compression, and quality control for AP and IB, 189-190 Curriculum in AP and IB programs, 9-10, 176-178, 260 curriculum development, 177-178 depth versus breadth, 176-177 variability, 178 Curriculum in the AP program, 66-71 content of AP courses, 67-68 development of AP courses, 66-67 guidance provided to teachers about curriculum development, 69-71 laboratory requirement for AP science courses, 68-69 Curriculum in the IB programme, 86-91 assessment criteria for experimental sciences courses, 90 content of IB courses, 87-89 development of IB courses, 87 expectations of students to meet assessment criteria for experimental sciences courses, 91 laboratory requirement for IB experimental sciences courses, 89-91

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools D Day academies, 109 Denial of credit or placement, 60-61 Design of educational systems, 134-153 assessment, 141-146 curriculum, 135-137 from framework to advanced study programs, 152-153 instruction, 137-141 professional development, 146-152 Design of programs assessment, 7-8 based on research on learning and pedagogy, 6-8 curriculum, 7-8 instruction, 7-8 professional development, 7-8 seven principles of human learning, 6-7 Development of AP courses, 66-67 of AP examinations, 75-77 by high-ability learners of greater expectations when working with others of similar ability, 133 of IB assessments, 95-96 of IB courses, 87 Differences among learners, 9, 166-168 a principle of human learning, 123, 126 using differences among learners in assessment, 166-168 Disparate bodies of knowledge, high-ability learners making connections easily among, 132-133 Disparities in opportunities to pursue and succeed in advanced study, 47-51 in outcome, 49-51 in participation, 48-49 racial/ethnic disparities in advanced placement scores by subject, 50 school racial/ethnic disparities in mathematics and science offerings, 49-51 Distance learning, providing college-level learning in high school, 109-110 Dual-enrollment, providing college-level learning in high school, 105-106 E Early mastery of high school math and science, by high-ability learners, 131 Early Outreach Program, 114 Economic forces, 20 Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY), 113 Education Week, 32, 35n, 42, 44 Educational context of advanced study, 36-47 preparing for advanced study in high school, 40-47 preparing for advanced study in middle school, 36-40 Educational Testing Service (ETS), 64, 76 End-of-course examinations, 145 Energy transfer theme, applications to three main subject areas, 70-71 Enrichment activities for advanced study, 113-116 academic and research competitions, 115 alternative curricular and instructional approaches, 115-116 internships, 114 mentorships, 114 Enrollment in an advanced course, 169 EPGY. See Education Program for Gifted Youth Equity, 182, 191-192 Equity 2000, 168 ETS. See Educational Testing Service Examinations design and development, 180 end-of-course, 145 in principled conceptual knowledge, 158-159 and quality control for AP and IB, 190 recommendations, 231-232 “Excellence,” 177 Exemption from required courses, using AP and IB for, 58-59 Expectations of students, to meet assessment criteria for IB experimental sciences courses, 91 F Fairness, 143 Fast Response Survey System, 34

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Financing advanced study programs at the local level, 33 Formative assessment, misconceptions about, 163-164 Funding agencies, recommendations, 202 G Goal 3, 30 Goal of advanced study, primary, 12, 197-198 Governors’ schools, 109 Grade-point average (GPA) system, 40n Guidance provided to teachers by AP, about curriculum development, 69-71 Guide for the Recommended Laboratory Program for Advanced Placement Chemistry, A, 69, 73 H High-ability learners, 130-133 advanced in their critical and creative thinking skills, 132 developing greater expectations and engaging in higher-level processing when working with others of similar ability, 133 displaying exceptionally rich knowledge base in their specific talent domain, 130 having the capacity to make connections easily among disparate bodies of knowledge, 132-133 having the propensity to be profoundly influenced by a single mentor, 133 having their capacity for learning underestimated, and thus become underdeveloped, 132 learning at a more rapid rate than other students, 131 often able to solve problems by alternate means, without understanding the underlying concepts, 131 often having mastered high school math and science before formally taking the course, 131 often losing motivation to achieve because of boredom, 131-132 picking up informally much of the content knowledge taught in school, 130-131 preferring unstructured problems in which the talk is less well defined, 132 High-level processing, high-ability learners engaging in when working with others of similar ability, 133 High-quality instruction, promotion of, 179-180 High school-college interface. See Secondary-postsecondary interface High school mathematics and science early mastery by high-ability learners, 131 preparing for advanced study, 42-44 High school preparation for advanced study, 40-47 curriculum, 40-42 students, 46-47 teaching challenges, 44-46 High stakes for AP and IB, 185-188 effects on schools, 187-188 effects on students, 186 effects on teachers, 187 effects on teaching and learning, 186-187 Higher-level mathematics and science courses, percentage of all high school students taking, 43-44 How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, 18, 116, 118n Human learning, seven principles of, 118-129 I IB. See International Baccalaureate Programme IB Diploma Programme Guide, 87 IBCA. See International Baccalaureate Curriculum and Assessment Centre IBNA. See International Baccalaureate of North America IBO. See International Baccalaureate Organisation Inferences drawn from assessment results, support for, 181-182 Information technology, 20 evolution of, 232

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Institutional decisions, 60 awarding credit and advanced placement for courses beyond the introductory college level, 14, 202-203 Instruction, 7-8 in the educational system, 137-141 findings, 234, 242-243, 246 recommendations, 13, 200, 240, 245, 249 for understanding, 7, 139, 142 Instruction in AP and IB programs, 10, 178-180 assigning worthwhile tasks, 179 promotion of high-quality instruction, 179-180 Instruction in the AP program, 71-75 AP course descriptions and teacher’s guides, 72-74 messages about instruction conveyed by AP examinations, 74-75 Instruction in the IB programme, 92-94 IB programme guides and teaching notes, 92-93 messages about instruction conveyed by IB examinations, 93-94 “predicted grades,” 57n, 94-95 Internal assessment, 92 International Baccalaureate Curriculum and Assessment Centre (IBCA), 87, 98 International Baccalaureate of North America (IBNA), 85-86 International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO), 1, 9, 21, 83 assessment practice, 14, 203-204 developing research in the implementation of its programs, 15, 204-205 Middle Years Programme, 168 providing assistance to schools, 15, 204 providing guidance in the use of examination scores, 15, 204 recommendations concerning assessment practice, 14, 203-204 recommendations concerning assistance to schools, 15, 204 recommendations concerning guidance in the use of examination scores, 15, 204 recommendations concerning research in the implementation of their programs, 15, 204-205 recommendations concerning responsibility for appropriate instructional approaches, 14, 204 responsibility for appropriate instructional approaches, 14, 204 International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme, 1, 83-102. See also AP and IB programs assessment, 94-100 college credit and placement in, 194-196 curriculum, 86-91 guides and teaching notes, 92-93 instruction, 92-94 professional development, 100-102 role in college admission decisions, 55-57 using for placement or exemption from required courses, 58-59 Internships, for enrichment, 114 J Johns Hopkins University, The, Center for Talented Youth, 108n Jones, Lee, 104n K Knowledge “presumed,” 160n principled conceptual, 118-120 prior, 120-122 L Laboratory requirements for AP science courses, 68-69 for IB experimental sciences courses, 89-91 Learners. See also High-ability learners differences among, 123, 126 Learning capacity of high-ability learners underestimated, 132 in context, 172-174 effects of AP and IB on, 186-187 by high-ability learners, 130-131 informal, of content taught in school, 130-131

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools rapid, 131 seven principles of human, 118-129 situated, 127-128 with understanding, 119 Learning communities, 9, 170-172 a principle of human learning, 128-129 Learning principles, recommendations, 13, 199 Learning research, analysis of AP and IB programs based on, 8-9, 154-175 Learning with understanding, 7-8, 117-133 characteristic of high-ability learners, 130-133 concept maps, 124-125 seven principles of human learning, 118-129 Legislative initiatives, 30. See also individual laws recommendations, 203 Limited access to AP and IB, 191-192 Links between advanced study and higher education, 51-63 admission decisions, 53-55 advanced study as a link between high school and college, 52-57 AP and IB examination grades and the admission process, 57 college credit and placement based on advanced study, 58-61 role of advanced study in college admission decisions, 53-57 role of AP and IB in admission process, 55-57 secondary-postsecondary interface coordination and articulation, 51-52 variability of credit and placement decisions, 61-63 Low motivation to achieve, of high-ability learners, 131-132 M Magnet schools, 109 Mathematical Association of America, 169n, 260 Mathematics. See also Calculus changes in, 19 Mathematics and science courses hierarchical nature of, 19-20 high school, 42-44, 131 higher-level, 43-44 middle school, 37-38 school racial/ethnic disparities in, 49-51 Mathematics courses, ability grouping in, 39-40 Mathematics panel, 246-249 principal findings, 246-248 recommendations, 248-249 Mentorships for enrichment, 114 high-ability learners’ propensity to be influenced by, 133 Messages about instruction as conveyed by AP examinations, 74-75 as conveyed by IB examinations, 93-94 Metacognition, 8, 164-166 a principle of human learning, 122-123 Middle school mathematics and science, 37-38 Middle school preparation for advanced study, 36-40 ability grouping in mathematics, 39-40 teaching challenges, 38 Misconceptions, 136 and formative assessment, 163-164 Moderation Report on the Internal Assessment, 100 Motivation, 9, 168-170 believing in the possibility of success, 168 deciding to enroll in an advanced course, 169 the final examination, 170 investing effort for success, 169-170 low in high-ability learners, 131-132 a principle of human learning, 126-127 Multimedia courses, computer-based, 112-113 N NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress NASSP. See National Association of Secondary School Principals Nation at Risk, A, 29 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 113-114 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 29

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), 42 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), 140, 200 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 18, 28, 43n National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education, 51n National Commission on Excellence in Education, 29 National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, 150, 184, 240 National Commission on the High School Senior Year (NCHSSY), 42 National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and Technology, 109 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), 3, 32, 43, 169n, 177, 200, 260 National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), 180-182, 186 National Council on the Evaluation of Foreign Student Credentials, 194 National Education Goals Panel, 30 National Institute on Student Achievement, Curriculum, and Assessment, 45 National Institutes of Health, 113-114 National Research Council (NRC), 1, 3, 17, 31, 43, 117 Committee on Education Finance, 33n National Science Education Standards (NSES), 31, 162, 200, 230-231, 234, 237, 240, 244, 260 National Science Foundation, 18 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 45-46 National Task Force on Minority High Achievement, 15n, 204n NBPTS. See National Board for Professional Teaching Standards NCES. See National Center for Education Statistics NCHSSY. See National Commission on the High School Senior Year NCME. See National Council on Measurement in Education NCTM. See National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NetCourses, 112 Newsweek, 185 No Child Left Behind Act, 32 NRC. See National Research Council NSES. See National Science Education Standards NSTA. See National Science Teachers Association O Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), 41 Ohio State University, 114 Online courses, and quality control for AP and IB, 190-191 Organization of complex content, in principled conceptual knowledge, 157-158 Outcome of advanced study, disparities in, 49-51 Overview of panel findings and recommendations, 229 of the programs, 5-6, 20-22 P Paige, Rod, 30 Participation in advanced study, disparities in, 48-49 Pathways Programs, 168 Physics panel, 242-245 principal findings, 242-243 recommendations, 243-245 Policy context of advanced study, 29-36 financing advanced study programs at the local level, 33 role and influence of standards and accountability, 31-32 teacher qualifications, certification, and challenges, 33-36 Practical Scheme of Work (PSOW), 90-91 “Predicted grades” in the IB programme, 57n, 94 Preparation and credentials of AP teachers, 79 of IB teachers, 100-101 Preparation for advanced study in high school, 40-47 in middle school, 36-40

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Prerequisites for AP and IB, 192 and prior knowledge, 160-161 “Presumed” knowledge, 160n Principled conceptual knowledge, 8, 156-159 breadth versus depth, 156-157 examinations and conceptual learning, 158-159 organizing complex content, 157-158 a principle of human learning, 118-120 Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, 230 Principles of human learning, 118-129 differences among learners, 123, 126 learning communities, 128-129 metacognition, 122-123 motivation, 126-127 principled conceptual knowledge, 118-120 prior knowledge, 120-122 situated learning, 127-128 Prior knowledge, 8, 160-164 coordination of courses, 161-162 implications for instruction, 162-163 misconceptions and formative assessment, 163-164 prerequisites, 160-161 a principle of human learning, 120-122 Professional associations, recommendations, 202 Professional development, 7-8 in the educational system, 146-152 effective, 149, 152 findings, 234, 246 recommendations, 240-241, 245, 249 Professional development in the AP program, 79-82 experiences of AP teachers, 79-82 preparation and credentials of AP teachers, 79 Professional development in the IB programme, 100-102 experiences of IB teachers, 101-102 preparation and credentials of IB teachers, 100-101 Program design, based on research on learning and pedagogy, 6-8 Program developers, recommendations, 199-200, 203 Program in Mathematics for Young Scientists, 114 Program staff, recommendations, 201 Project Advance, 105n Promising Practices, 30 Promotion of high-quality instruction, 179-180 PSOW. See Practical Scheme of Work Q Qualified teachers and professional development, recommendations, 13-14, 201-202 Quality control for AP and IB, 188-191 curriculum compression, 189-190 online courses, 190-191 participation in examinations, 190 standards and regulation of courses, 189 R Racial/ethnic disparities in advanced placement scores, by subject, 50 in mathematics and science offerings, school-level, 49-51 Recommendations, 12-15, 197 access and equity, 12, 198-199 alternative programs, 14, 202 assessment, 13, 201, 237-238, 245, 249 from the biology panel, 236-238 for changes in the AP and IB programs, 14-15, 203-205 from the chemistry panel, 239-241 college admission decisions, 203 curriculum, 13, 199-200, 236-237, 239-240, 244-245 examinations, 231-232 funding agencies, 202 instruction, 13, 200, 240, 245, 249 interpretation of, 230-231 learning principles, 13, 199 from the mathematics panel, 248-249 from the physics panel, 243-245 for the primary goal of advanced study, 12, 197-198 professional associations, 202 professional development, 240-241, 245, 249 program developers, 199-200, 203 program staff, 201

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools qualified teachers and professional development, 13-14, 201-202 review of, 230-231 school administrators, 200 secondary-postsecondary interface, 14, 202-203, 232, 241 student preparation, 232, 244, 248-249 teacher preparation, 232 Reduction of time to degree, 58 Regulation of courses, and quality control for AP and IB, 189 Reliability, 143 Reporting of AP examinations, 78 of IB assessments, 98-100 Required courses, using AP and IB for placement or exemption from, 58-59 Research competitions, for enrichment, 115 Residential academies, 109 Rich knowledge base, high-ability learners displaying, 130 Riley, Richard, 21, 29, 30n, 111n Ross, Arnold, 114 S Salaries, trends in teacher, 36 School administrators, recommendations, 200 School profiles, 54 School quality effects of AP and IB on, 187-188 evaluating by the numbers, 188 ranking by the number of AP or IB tests taken, 187-188 Schools-within-a-school, 109 Science. See also Mathematics and science courses; individual disciplines changes in, 19 Science for All Americans, 31 Scoring of AP examinations, 77 of IB assessments, 96-98 Secondary-postsecondary interface in advanced study, 4-5 college and university scientists and mathematicians modifying their introductory courses, 14, 203 coordination and articulation, 51-52 findings, 235 institutions awarding credit and advanced placement for courses beyond the introductory college level, 14, 202-203 recommendations, 14, 202-203, 232, 241 Sequencing, of advanced study, 3 Seven principles of human learning, 118-129 differences among learners, 123, 126 learning communities, 128-129 metacognition, 122-123 motivation, 126-127 principled conceptual knowledge, 118-120 prior knowledge, 120-122 situated learning, 127-128 SHARP. See Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program Shortages of teachers, 20, 35-36 Situated learning, 9 a principle of human learning, 127-128 Solving problems by alternate means, by high-ability learners, 131 Southern Regional Education Board, 42 Specialized schools, providing college-level learning in high school, 108-109 Standards for advanced study, 3-4 and quality control for AP and IB, 189 role and influence of, 31-32 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 186 Stanford University, Education Program for Gifted Youth, 113 State Higher Education Executive Officers, 106-107 Student clientele for advanced study, 23-24 Students in advanced study, 4 effects of AP and IB on, 186 preparing for advanced study in high school, 46-47 recommendations for preparation of, 232, 244, 248-249 Success believing in the possibility of, 168 investing effort for, 169-170 Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP), 108n Survey of mathematics and biology departments, regarding credit and placement decisions, 61-63

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Syracuse University, Project Advance, 105n T Tasks, assigning worthwhile, 179 Teacher preparation. See also Professional development recommendations, 232 Teachers of advanced study, 3 certification of, 35 effects of AP and IB on, 186-187 in high school, 44-46 in middle school, 38 qualifications of, 33-36 shortages of, 20, 35-36 trends in salaries of, 36 Teachers Learning Conference, 112 Teaching. See Instruction Tech Prep, 106 Televised courses, 110 Top 10 Percent Law, 53 Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology, 241 2+2 programs, 106 U Understanding, learning with, 119 Unequal access, to advanced study, 4 University of California, Early Outreach Program, 114 Unstructured problems, preference of high-ability learners for, 132 U.S. Department of Education, 18, 21, 29-30, 46 Uses, misuses, and unintended consequences of AP and IB, 11-12, 185-196 access and equity, 191-192 college credit and placement, 192-196 high stakes, 185-188 quality control, 188-191 V Vade Mecum: Procedures Manual for IB Coordinators and Teachers, 89 Validity, 76n, 78, 143, 182 consequential, of AP and IB assessments, 182-183 Variability of credit and placement decisions, 61-63, 75n survey of mathematics and biology departments, 61-63 Vertical Teams Initiative, 38n, 82 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 182 W Washington Post, 185 Web-based courses, 111-113 computer-based multimedia courses, 112-113 Web-Based Education Commission, 111 Weighted system of GPAs, 40n Workshops, 80-81