dual-enrollment, 105-106

overview of, 6

recommendations, 14, 202

specialized schools, 108-109

web-based courses, 111-113

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 3, 31, 43, 177

Project 2061, 161

American College Testing (ACT) Program, 53

American Educational Research Association (AERA), 180-182, 186

American Federation of Teachers (AFT), 36, 42

American Psychological Association (APA), 180-182, 186

American Youth Policy Forum, 42

AP. See Advanced Placement program

AP and IB effects on schools, 187-188

evaluating school quality by the numbers, 188

ranking schools by the number of AP or IB tests taken, 187-188

AP and IB programs, 8-11, 154-184, 259-260

assessment, 10, 180-183

context and consequences, 260

differences among learners, 9, 166-168

examination grades and the admission process, 57

instruction, 10, 178-180

learning, 259

learning communities, 9, 170-172

learning in context, 172-174

limited access to, 191-192

metacognition, 8, 164-166

motivation, 9, 168-170

principled conceptual knowledge, 8, 156-159

prior knowledge, 8, 160-164

professional development, 10-11, 183-184

situated learning, 9

teaching, 259-260

APA. See American Psychological Association

APEX Learning Systems, 111n, 112

Assessment, 7-8, 20

findings, 235, 243, 247

formative, 163-164

internal, 92

recommendations, 13, 201, 237-238, 245, 249

for understanding, 8, 144, 147

Assessment in AP and IB programs, 10, 180-183

consequential validity of AP and IB assessments, 182-183

examination design and development, 180

support for inferences drawn from assessment results, 181-182

Assessment in the AP program, 75-79

College Board determinations about AP examinations and their purpose, 78-79

College Board recommendations about granting college credit for AP examinations, 77

developing examinations, 75-77

reporting examinations, 78

scoring examinations, 77

Assessment in the educational system, 141-146

reliability, validity, and fairness, 143

Assessment in the IB programme, 94-100

criteria for IB experimental sciences courses, 90

developing assessments, 95-96

reporting assessments, 98-100

scoring assessments, 96-98

Association of American Colleges and Universities, 106

“Average” defined, 177

B

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 31

Biology panel, 233-238

principal findings, 233-235

recommendations, 236-238

Boredom, of high-ability learners, 131-132

Boston University, Program in Mathematics for Young Scientists, 114

Breadth versus depth, of principled conceptual knowledge, 156-157

Bush, George W., 21

C

Calculus

findings of the mathematics panel on impact of, 248



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