9. Consider complications associated with creation or restoration in seriously degraded or disturbed sites. A seriously degraded wetland, surrounded by an extensively developed landscape, may achieve its maximal function only as an impaired system that requires active management to support natural processes and native species (NRC 1992). It should be recognized, however, that the functional performance of some degraded sites may be optimized by mitigation, and these considerations should be included if the goal of the mitigation is water- or sediment-quality improvement, promotion of rare or endangered species, or other objectives best served by locating a wetland in a disturbed landscape position. Disturbance that is intense, unnatural, or rare can promote extensive invasion by exotic species or at least delay the natural rates of redevelopment. Reintroducing natural hydrology with minimal excavation of soils often promotes alternative pathways of wetland development. It is often advantageous to preserve the integrity of native soils and to avoid deep grading of substrates that may destroy natural below-ground processes and facilitate exotic species colonization (Zedler 1996a,b).

10. Conduct early monitoring as part of adaptive management. Develop a thorough monitoring plan as part of an adaptive management program that provides early indication of potential problems and direction for correction actions. The monitoring of wetland structure, processes, and function from the onset of wetland restoration or creation can indicate potential problems. Process monitoring (e.g., water-level fluctuations, sediment accretion and erosion, plant flowering, and bird nesting) is particularly important because it will likely identify the source of a problem and how it can be remedied. Monitoring and control of nonindigenous species should be a part of any effective adaptive management program. Assessment of wetland performance must be integrated with adaptive management. Both require understanding the processes that drive the structure and characteristics of a developing wetland. Simply documenting the structure (vegetation, sediments, fauna, and nutrients) will not provide the knowledge and guidance required to make adaptive “corrections” when adverse conditions are discovered. Although wetland development may take years to decades, process-based monitoring might provide more sensitive early indicators of whether a mitigation site is proceeding along an appropriate trajectory.

WETLAND FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT

The goal of no net loss refers to both wetland acres and wetland function, as the functions contribute to the watershed where the wetland is located. Therefore, when setting compensatory mitigation goals, the functions of a wetland proposed for fill need to be precisely characterized



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