Eighty percent were in compliance with legal requirements and demonstrated medium-to-high ecosystem success

Wilson and Mitsch (1996)


Minello and Webb (1997)


Sacco et al. (1994)


Craft et al. (1988)

Constructed marshes: macrophyte community developed quickly and within 5 to 10 years, above-ground biomass and MOM were equivalent or exceeded corresponding values in the natural marshes.

Craft et al. (1999)

After 15–25 years, benthic infauna and species richness were greater in the natural marshes.


Soil bulk density decreased and organic carbon and total nitrogen increased over time in constructed marshes.


Nitrogen accumulation was much higher in constructed marshes than in natural marshes.


Different ecological attributes develop at different rates, with primary producers achieving equivalence during the first 5 years, followed by the benthic infauna community 5–10 years later.


LaSalle et al. (1991)


Minello and Zimmerman (1992)


Haltiner et al. (1997)


Seneca et al. (1976)

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement