the HID, drawing materials from 3 1/2 to 4 years' remediation period. Ultimately, there would be 5–12 mounds covering 60 to 80 ha (150–200 ac) or 2 to 3% of the project area. The scale of the project is also indicated by the amount of on-site trucking, which is calculated to involve 26 trucks driving over 750,000 km (458,640 miles) per year.

The current marl prairie restoration program is conducted with mitigation funds that result from a cooperative program involving Everglades National Park, Dade County, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Doren 1997). A mitigation “credit” consists of 0.4 ha (1 ac) of restoration, costing $30,000 in 1999 (M. Norland, National Park Service (NPS), personal communication). Two-thirds of the mitigation money acquired goes to restoration, and one-third goes to additional land purchase.

The scientific basis for the program is the hypothesis that soil removal will eliminate the conditions responsible for the presence of Schinus. A scientific advisory panel was established in 1996 to call for and review research proposals concerning this large-scale problem with invasive vegetation, to include studies of the current program and alternative approaches to eradication; the panel was subsequently disbanded by National Park Service administrators.


Doren, R.F. 1997. Restoration Research Themes and Hypotheses for Hole-in-the-Donut (HID). South Florida Natural Resources Center, Everglades National Park. [Online]. Available: [June 28, 2001].

ENP (Everglades National Park). 1998. Environmental Assessment: Hole-in-the-Donut Soil Disposal. Everglades National Park, Florida. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Denver, CO: Denver Service Center, National Park Service. 177 pp.


The Coyote Creek mitigation site was installed in 1993 to partially satisfy permit requirements pursuant to Section 404 of the CWA. The site was designed to provide off-site mitigation for impacts to nine creeks in Santa Clara County that were impacted by the construction of State Route 85 in San Jose, California. The mitigation goal is to develop 24.4 ac of stratified native riparian habitat adjacent to Coyote Creek, similar to riparian habitats found along other creeks (used as model sites) in Santa Clara County, California.

To achieve the mitigation goal, the ground surface elevation of an agricultural field adjacent to Coyote Creek was lowered by removing

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