H.T.Harvey & Associates. 1990. Route 85-Coyote Creek Mitigation Conceptual Revegetation Plan, 2nd Rev. Prepared for the California Department of Transportation, Oakland, CA. October 18, 1990.

H.T.Harvey & Associates. 1992. Final Approved Route 85-Coyote Creek Mitigation Project Site Performance Monitoring Plan. File 449–09. H.T.Harvey & Associates.

H.T.Harvey & Associates. 1993. Route 85-Coyote Creek Mitigation Site 1993 Annual Monitoring Report. Project No. 449–15. H.T.Harvey & Associates.


The North Carolina Wetlands Restoration Program (NCWRP) was established by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1996. The purpose of the NCWRP is to restore, enhance, preserve, and create wetlands, streams, and riparian areas throughout the state's 17 major river basins. The goals of the program are to restore functions and values lost through historic, current, and future wetland impacts; to achieve a net increase in wetland acres, functions, and values in all of North Carolina's major river basins; to provide a consistent and simplified approach to address mitigation requirements associated with permits or authorizations issued by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (Corps); and to increase the ecological effectiveness of required wetland mitigation and promote a comprehensive approach to the protection of natural resources.

The NCWRP established that all “compensatory mitigation” in North Carolina required as a condition of a Section 404 permit or authorization issued by the Corps be coordinated by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) consistent with basinwide plans for wetland restoration and rules developed by the North Carolina Environmental Management Commission (EMC). All compensatory wetland mitigation, whether performed by DENR or by permit applicants, shall be consistent with basinwide restoration plans. The emphasis of mitigation is expressly on replacing targeted functions in the same river basin (but not necessarily on in-kind or on-site mitigation) unless it can be demonstrated that restoration of other areas outside the impacted river basin would be more beneficial to the overall purposes of the wetlands restoration program.

Development and implementation of basinwide wetland and riparian restoration plans for each of the state's 17 river basins was a statutory mandate of the program. A key component of the basinwide approach is development of local watershed plans (LWPs) to protect and enhance water quality, flood prevention, fisheries, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities in each of the 17 river basins. LWPs are developed cooperatively with representatives of local governments, nonprofit organizations, and local communities. They provide an opportunity for local stakeholders, including residents, community groups, businesses, and industry, to

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