TABLE C–1 Analysis of Soil, Plant, and Animal Communities for Mitigation Sites Compared with Reference Sites

Component

Location

Sites

Years

Source/Notes

1. Soils

California

1

>22, if ever

Zedler and Callaway (1999); salt marsh

Organic matter/% carbon

Louisiana

30

>20

Turner et al. (1994); backfilled marsh

 

North Carolina

7

>17

Sacco et al. (1994); planted salt marsh

 

Illinois

2

>7

Mitsch and Flanagan (1996); fresh marsh

 

Oregon

1

>5

Gwin et al. (1990); fresh marshes

 

Pennsylvania

44

?

Bishel-Machung et al. (1996); fresh marsh

 

Metanalysis

19

≫10

Streever (2000); coastal dredged sites

 

South Carolina

2

>3

LaSalle et al. (1991); salt marsh

Macroorganic concentration

North Carolina

1

>3

Moy and Levin (1991); planted salt marsh from uplands

 

North Carolina

5–7

>25

Craft et al. (1988); Craft (2000)

Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration

California

1

40+

Zedler and Callaway (1999); salt marsh

 

North Carolina

5

>30

Craft et al. (1988); salt marsh

 

Illinois

2

>7

Mitsch and Flanagan (1996); fresh marsh

Exchangeable ions

South Carolina

2

>3

LaSalle et al. (1991); salt marsh

Grain size

North Carolina

1

>3

Moy and Levin (1991); planted salt marsh from uplands

Nutrient cycling

Texas

3

>17

Montagna (1993)

Sulfide and nitrogen

California

1

>15

Zedler (1990)

Average of six soil indices

California

4

>5

Zedler and Langis (1991); salt marsh

Nutrient exchange

North Carolina

1

>5

Craft et al. (1991); salt marsh

2. Plants—trees

Ohio

10

>50

Niswander and Mitsch (1995); riparian wetland, simulation model

Plant cover

Atlantic and Gulf

68

5–7

Matthews and Minello (1994); literature review

 

Louisiana

30

>20

Turner et al. (1994); backfilled marsh

 

Oregon

1

3

Frenkel and Morlan (1990); hay farm restoration

Height and biomass

California

4

>5

Zedler and Langis (1991); salt marsh

 

California

1

>11, if ever

Zedler and Callaway (1999); salt marsh

 

North Carolina

1

5

Broome et al. (1986)



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