• Transplantation can be done with considerable assurance that environmental conditions will not change substantially after planting (relatively low risk of extreme events, high probability of establishment).

  • Microbial and animal components of these ecosystems are readily dispersed by the widely circulating ocean waters that connect distant seagrass beds and/or salt marshes.

If these are indeed the characteristics that make ecosystems easier to restore or create, one can expect greater difficulty in restoring ecosystems that have the following:

  • Several codominants.

  • Poorly studied species.

  • Species that are dispersal limited or that have low reproductive capacity (few seeds, heavy seeds, no vegetative reproduction).

  • Dominants that are “late succession” species (not ready colonizers of bare substrates).

  • Habitats that have high environmental variability, which allows exotics an opportunity to invade and which pose risks for transplantation efforts (e.g., a marsh plain that is exposed for much of the day can become dry and hypersaline the day after planting, stressing and killing thousands of seedlings (J.Zedler, University of Wisconsin, personal observation, 2000)).

    No aquatic connection to other wetlands and/or no corridors for dispersal.

The restorability of an ecosystem is not necessarily predictable from experiences with smooth and eelgrass cordgrass, even for closely related habitat types. For example, restoration of tall forms of Pacific cordgrass has proved to be difficult because Spartina foliosa has a high nitrogen demand and grows poorly in substrates that are coarse in texture and/or low in organic matter (Langis et al. 1991; Zedler 1998). Likewise, seagrass beds in Florida that are dominated by late-succession Thalassia testudinum are difficult to restore because this species grows slowly and not densely enough to prevent erosion (Fonseca et al. 1998). Moving upslope to mid-and high-intertidal wetlands complicates restoration and creation efforts even more, as the environment becomes highly variable in soil moisture and soil salinity. In addition, newly planted vegetation becomes susceptible to a broader range of herbivores in that both aquatic and terrestrial animals can attack delicate ramets (Zedler 2001).

Wetland Types That Are Difficult to Restore or Create

Wetland ecosystems that require a specific combination of plant types, soil characteristics, and water supply are difficult to impossible to create from scratch. Examples include vernal pools, fens, and bogs.

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