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COMPENSATING FOR WETLAND LOSSES UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT
J.WHITFIELD GIBBONS is a professor of ecology and a senior research ecologist at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory in Aiken, South Carolina, and a research associate in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Gibbons earned his Ph.D. (zoology) at Michigan State University and M.S. and B.S. (biology) degrees at the University of Alabama. His research interests focus on the population dynamics and ecology of aquatic and semiaquatic vertebrates and has involved detailed population studies of fish, amphibians, and reptiles, particularly turtles. An emphasis of his research has been on the application of basic research to environmental impact and conservation issues, particularly regarding natural and degraded wetlands.
JAMES WENDELL GILLIAM is William Neal Reynolds Professor of Soil Science at North Carolina State University. He earned his Ph.D. at Mississippi State University. His research interests include the effects of agriculture, forestry, and various best management practices on the quality of water draining from watersheds; water management to increase yields and minimize nonpoint-source pollution; and the effectiveness of riparian wetlands and other vegetative filters for improving the quality of agricultural drainage waters. He was the 1999 recipient of the Soil Science Society of America's Applied Research Award. In 1996 he received the U.S. Department of Agriculture Award for Superior Service for Research on Riparian Buffers. Dr. Gilliam also served as a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Long-Range Soil and Water Conservation.
CAROL A.JOHNSTON is a senior research associate with the Natural Resources Research Institute at the University of Minnesota in Duluth; currently she is on assignment as program director for the Ecosystem Studies Program at the National Science Foundation. She earned her Ph.D. in soil science at the University of Wisconsin. Her research interests include wetland soils, biogeochemistry, and mapping; effects of land/water interactions on surface water quantity and quality; spatial and temporal variability of wetland processes; and geographic information systems. Dr. Johnston was a member of the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board for 6 years, and served as its vice-chair from 1997 to 2000. She previously served on the National Research Council's Committee on Watershed Management and Committee on Wetlands Characterization.
WILLIAM J.MITSCH is a professor of natural resources and environmental science at Ohio State University and director of the Olentangy