Soil fungi that enable and enhance nutrient uptake by plant roots.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)—

Federal law that requires federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their proposed actions.

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)—

A federal permit program under the CWA pertaining to discharges of pollutants other than dredge-and-fill material.


National Environmental Policy Act.


National Marine Fisheries Service.


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.


Natural Resources Conservation Service, formerly the Soil Conservation Service.


Nationwide permit.

Out-of-kind compensation—

Restoration, creation, enhancement, or preservation of wetlands that provide different functions than those of wetlands being adversely affected by a project.


Preconstruction notification.


Public notice.

Prior converted cropland (PC)—

A delineation of agricultural land with hydric soil that was planted to a crop at least once between 1983 and 1985 and was previously drained at an intensity consistent with the local NRCS standards.

Programmatic general permit (PGP)—

Under a PGP issued by the Corps, a state or local government assumes primary responsibility for the issue of dredge-and-fill permits.

Protection-oriented planning—

Process in a watershed-based approach involving the identification of high-quality wetlands that will be used for protection.

Rivers and Harbors Acts (RHAs)—

Federal laws enacted in the 1890s that regulate work conducted in traditionally navigable waters.


Special Area Management Plan.


Southern California Wetland Recovery Project.

Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899—

One of the earliest regulations governing the placement of dredge-and-fill material in waters of the United States.

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