B

Baltimore District's Guidelines, 227–228

Basin Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Plan, 210

Biological dynamics, evaluating in terms of regional reference models 5, 45

Biological opinion (BO), 257–258

BO. See Biological opinion

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, 20

Bogs, 26–27

Bush, George W., 156

C

California Coastal Act, 299

California Department of Fish and Game, South Coast Region, guidelines for wetland mitigation, 217–218

California Department of Transportation, 203, 205

Carolina bays, 52

Case studies, 199–210

Coyote Creek mitigation site, 201–208

Everglades National Park, 34, 199–201

North Carolina Wetland Restoration Program, 208–210

CEQ. See Council on Environmental Quality

Channelization, 58

Chicago District Mitigation Guidelines, 229–230

Cladium jamaicence, 30

Clean Water Act (CWA), 1–4, 6, 60, 299.

See also Section 404 permits

objective of, 11–13, 15, 53, 240

Clinton Administration Wetland Plan, 145

Coastal wetlands, on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, 41

Coastal zone management, in processing Department of the Army permit applications, 255–257

Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 252, 255–256, 264–265

Code of Federal Regulations, 65

Commanders, memorandum for, 234–238

Commercial mitigation banks, 86

Committee on Mitigating Wetland Losses, 2, 12–13, 20–21

Community structure, setting goals addressing, 7, 45

Comparative studies, of mitigation and natural wetlands, 189–198

Compensation

in-kind, 301

out-of-kind, 302

permittee-responsible, 8, 167

self-sustaining, 53–57

third-party, 9, 93, 168

Compensation wetland planning, 146–147, 300

Compensatory mitigation, 300

in California, parameters measured in, 107

completing before permitting activity, 7, 139, 167

defined, 14

designing and constructing individual sites on watershed scale, 7, 139, 167

establishing long-term stewardship for, 8, 168

guidelines for implementing, 9, 93

initiation of, 150

performance standards from selected Section 404 permits requiring 222

in processing Department of the Army permit applications, 265–268

Compensatory mitigation mechanisms under Section 404, 82–93

legal responsibility for the mitigation, 86–88

location of the compensatory mitigation action, 83–86

MBRT process, 91

recommendation, 93

relationship of mitigation actions to permitted activities, 88–91

stewardship requirements, 91–92

a taxonomy, 92

Compliance, 94–122

based on area, for mitigation that was attempted based on field inspection or monitoring reports, 119

based on permit number, for when the mitigation plan was fully implemented 118

improving monitoring of, 8, 168

inspection and enforcement of, 156–157

with mitigation design standards, 97– 101



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