in mitigation planning, 95–97

with mitigation ratios, 108–110

monitoring duration of, 112–113

monitoring of, 110–112

in processing Department of the Army permit applications, 270

in project implementation, 101–103

recommendations, 122

record of, 113–121

with requirements for permittee-responsible compensation, 8, 167

Compliance with permit conditions, 103–108

design standards and detailed performance standards, 104–108

Compliance workload terms, 282–284

Conditioning permits, in processing Department of the Army permit applications, 264–265

Conduit for groundwater, soil in wetlands as, 32

Connectivity, 300

Conservation. See Wetland conservation

Constructed salt marshes

at a mitigation site in North Carolina, 42

in natural sites in Paradise Creek, Southern California, 115

in San Diego Bay, long-term data for, 43

Constructed wetlands, 300

defined, 13

Contaminants, from soil in wetlands, 32

Continuous parametric scale, creating, 136

Corps of Engineers. See U.S. Army Corps

of Engineers

Corridors. See Animal dispersal corridors

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), 62, 266, 300

Cowardin system. See Wetland classification system

Coyote Creek mitigation site, 201–208

duration of monitoring, 205–207

long-term success criterion, 205

monitoring and site development, 205– 207

monitoring parameters, 204

short-term success criterion, 204–205

site installation and postinstallation site review, 205

Craven County, N.C., comparison between observed and DRAINMOD simulated water-table depths for a wetland restoration site in, 55

Creation of wetlands, 22–27.

See also Constructed wetlands

wetland types that are difficult to create, 24–27

wetland types that have been created, 22–24

Creation of wetlands that are ecologically self-sustaining, 123–128

adopting a dynamic landscape perspective, 124–125

attending to subsurface conditions, 127

avoiding overengineered structures in the wetland's design, 126

choosing wetland restoration over creation, 125–126

conducting early monitoring, 128

considering complications in degraded or disturbed sites, 128

considering the hydrogeomorphic and ecological landscape and climate 123–124

incorporating appropriate planting elevation, depth, soil type, and seasonal timing, 126–127

providing appropriately heterogeneous topography, 127

restoring or developing naturally variable hydrological conditions 125

Credits, wetland, 67

Cropped wetlands (CW), 300

CWA. See Clean Water Act

CWA Section 404 program. See Section 404 permits

CZMA. See Coastal Zone Management Act


DA. See Department of the Army


long-term, for salt marshes constructed in San Diego Bay, 43

quality assurance measures for entry of, 3, 122

Degraded sites, 44

considering complications in, 128

Denials, 278

Denitrification, 27

Department of the Army (DA) permitapplications, policies and procedures for processing, 240–271

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