• Rooting medium. Soil serves as a rooting medium for plants, providing the physical support for above-ground plant structures.

  • Germination medium. Seed germination requires more specialized conditions than those required to sustain mature rooted plants. Germination of annuals, for example, is often promoted by a moist, temporarily exposed soil that is free of detritus.

  • Seed bank. Seeds and rhizomes retained in the soil remain viable for months to years.

  • Source of water and nutrients for plants. Soil is the site of water and nutrient uptake for rooted plants, even rooted plants that are submerged. The release of plant-available forms of nitrogen from unavailable organic forms stored in the soil (i.e., nitrogen mineralization) provides a constant source of nutrition to wetland plants.

  • Habitat for mycorrhizae and symbiotic bacteria. Roots have complex relationships with soil fungi (mycorrhizae) and bacteria that enable and enhance nutrient uptake. Examples include nitrogen-fixing bacteria living symbiotically in root nodules of legumes and Alnus and vascular arbuscular mycorrhizae that associate with Salix. Some plants require the presence of specific mycorrhizal species to survive.

  • Water-quality functions. The soil is the locus of most of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that give wetlands the ability to improve water quality. Sediment retention takes place at the soil surface. The chemical composition of the soil, such as the presence of iron and aluminum hydroxides, affects its ability to sorb phosphorus. Denitrifying bacteria dwell in the soil and depend on soil carbon as an energy source to support denitrification.

  • Habitat for soil macrofauna. Soil-dwelling fauna sustain wading birds that probe the sediments of mud and sandflats with their long beaks. The role of soil-dwelling fauna in other types of wetlands is less well known.

  • Conduit for groundwater. Soil permeability affects its ability to convey water. Dense, low-permeability soils may serve as aquacludes, causing water in wetlands to be perched above the regional water table. More permeable soils have higher hydraulic conductivities, allowing wetlands to have greater interaction with groundwater.

  • Source of contaminants. Contaminants can be released from soils, particularly where the soil is landfill or has a prior history of industrial use. Soils that are high in heavy metals may release toxic forms, such as methylmercury and selenium, when creation of a wetland induces anaerobic conditions.

In wetland restoration and creation projects, soil is generally viewed as merely a rooting medium for the plants that are desired (the first function listed above). The soil that has developed in situ at a wetland creation

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