ing force influencing wetland development, structure, function, and persistence. In conclusion, riverine and slope wetlands are more difficult to mitigate than are depressional wetlands.

By the Ecoregion in Which a Wetland Occurs?

Ecoregions are quite diverse, and it was difficult for the committee to generalize about the effect of ecoregion on the likelihood of achieving wetland restoration-creation goals. Created wetlands in areas of variable precipitation, one factor that distinguishes ecoregions, may not meet the jurisdictional definition of a wetland every year. Such areas are more likely to occur in arid ecoregions, although periods of drought and temporal variations in precipitation can occur in any ecoregion. Innate temporal variability of wetlands due to climatic variation is not the same as mitigation failure.

The committee concludes that created wetlands in regions of variable precipitation may not meet the jurisdictional definition of a wetland every year, increasing the risk of noncompliance with performance standards. Thus, the mitigation design should recognize and accommodate hydrological variability and extremes caused by climate. Wetland restoration and enhancement should be preferred over creation in such areas.

By the Kinds of Plants Present?

An important general consideration of wetland design is whether plant material is going to be allowed to develop naturally from some initial seeding and planting or whether continuous horticultural selection for desired plants will be imposed. To develop a wetland that will ultimately require low maintenance, natural successional processes need to be allowed to proceed. For forested wetlands, an initial period of invasion by undesirable species might be temporary if proper hydrological conditions are imposed and if trees shade out early invaders. One strategy is to introduce, by seeding and planting, many of the available species to allow natural processes to sort out the species and communities over time. Selective weeding may be necessary in the beginning or throughout the life of the wetland if aggressive exotic vegetation persists. Preferably, the system can sustain itself through its own successional patterns. Otherwise, labor-intensive management, which is never desirable in a compensatory mitigation wetland, will be needed. In some cases, survival of specific plantings is used to evaluate compliance. Wetlands that are readily invaded by exotics or prove to support undesirable monotypes over long periods require greater attention to planting and an establishment-phase exotic control program (see Boxes 2–2 and 2–3).



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