guidelines for permit decision making express a strong preference for compensation as near the permitted impact site as possible and for the same wetland type and functions. The committee concluded that such a preference for on-site and in-kind mitigation should not be automatic, but should follow from an analytically based assessment of the wetland needs in the watershed and the potential for the compensatory wetland to persist over time.

On-site compensation is typically constrained by hydrological conditions that are likely to have been or are being modified by the developments requiring mitigation. Hydrological conditions, including variability in water levels and water flow rates, are the primary driving force influencing wetland development, structure, functioning, and persistence. Proper placement within the landscape of compensatory wetlands to establish hydrological equivalence is necessary for wetland sustainability. The ability to achieve desired outcomes within a specific location is also a function of the degree of degradation of the hydrological conditions, soils, vegetation, and fauna at the site. The more degraded the local site and the more degraded the watershed, the less likely it will support a high-quality project. Thus, opportunities for in-kind compensation need to be sought within a larger landscape context.

Even with a suitable position in the landscape, the ability to establish desired wetland functions will depend on the particular function, the restoration or creation approach used, and the degree of degradation at the compensation site. Landscape position, hydrological variability, species richness, biological dynamics, and hydrological regime all are important factors that affect wetland restoration and mitigation of loss. Some wetland types—in particular, fens and bogs—cannot be effectively restored with present knowledge. Mitigation efforts that do not include a proper assessment of such factors are unlikely to contribute to the goals of the Clean Water Act.

Recommendations
  • Avoidance is strongly recommended for wetlands that are difficult or impossible to restore, such as fens or bogs.

  • Site selection for wetland conservation and mitigation should be conducted on a watershed scale in order to maintain wetland diversity, connectivity, and appropriate proportions of upland and wetland systems needed to enhance the long-term stability of the wetland and riparian systems. Regional watershed evaluation would greatly enhance the protection of wetlands and/or the creation of wetland corridors that mimic natural distributions of wetlands in the landscape.

  • All mitigation wetlands should become self-sustaining. Proper



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