Index

A

Accountability, 5, 6, 14, 26, 62, 77, 78, 86, 92, 102, 110, 111

Agriculture, 6, 107-109

American Commonwealth Management Services, 63

American Water Works Association, 35, 42-43, 44, 58

American Water Works Company, Inc., 11, 18, 46

American Water Works Service Company, 69

Anti-trust issues, see Competition issues, general

Arsenic, 3, 47-48

Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies, 54

Azurix Corporation, 24, 25

B

Baltimore Water Company, 31

Bank guarantees, 12, 75

Benchmarking, 4, 47, 55, 59, 92, 101, 132-133

Bonds, municipal, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53, 62, 68

Britain, see United Kingdom

C

California Resources Agency, 11

Canada, 48, 49

Capital investment, 5, 12, 18-20, 22, 46, 51-53, 54, 58, 62, 81-85, 100, 132, 133

bonds, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53, 62, 68

Environmental Protection Agency, 18, 129-130

historical perspectives, 33, 38, 125, 126

outsourcing, 66, 67

public-private partnerships, 72

regionalization, 50-51, 53, 90-91

small utilities and regionalization, 50-51, 53

Chemicals, 1

arsenic, 3, 47-48

water treatment, general, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36, 48-49

Cities, see Urban areas

Clean Water Act, 19, 35-36, 37, 45, 48

Community-level issues, 2, 6, 10, 13, 22, 79-80, 90, 101-104, 111

see also Local government; Regionalization; Small and medium-sized utilities; Urban areas

community-level system defined, 12, 13

cultural values, 7, 106, 109, 111



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 139
Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience Index A Accountability, 5, 6, 14, 26, 62, 77, 78, 86, 92, 102, 110, 111 Agriculture, 6, 107-109 American Commonwealth Management Services, 63 American Water Works Association, 35, 42-43, 44, 58 American Water Works Company, Inc., 11, 18, 46 American Water Works Service Company, 69 Anti-trust issues, see Competition issues, general Arsenic, 3, 47-48 Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies, 54 Azurix Corporation, 24, 25 B Baltimore Water Company, 31 Bank guarantees, 12, 75 Benchmarking, 4, 47, 55, 59, 92, 101, 132-133 Bonds, municipal, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53, 62, 68 Britain, see United Kingdom C California Resources Agency, 11 Canada, 48, 49 Capital investment, 5, 12, 18-20, 22, 46, 51-53, 54, 58, 62, 81-85, 100, 132, 133 bonds, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53, 62, 68 Environmental Protection Agency, 18, 129-130 historical perspectives, 33, 38, 125, 126 outsourcing, 66, 67 public-private partnerships, 72 regionalization, 50-51, 53, 90-91 small utilities and regionalization, 50-51, 53 Chemicals, 1 arsenic, 3, 47-48 water treatment, general, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36, 48-49 Cities, see Urban areas Clean Water Act, 19, 35-36, 37, 45, 48 Community-level issues, 2, 6, 10, 13, 22, 79-80, 90, 101-104, 111 see also Local government; Regionalization; Small and medium-sized utilities; Urban areas community-level system defined, 12, 13 cultural values, 7, 106, 109, 111

OCR for page 139
Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience franchising arrangements, 11, 90 number of systems, 2, 12, 13 watersheds, 6, 8, 11, 25, 26, 82, 89, 91, 93, 104, 105, 106, 111-112 Competition issues, general, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 27, 41, 58, 77, 92-96, 112 see also Pricing deregulation, 15, 45, 121-126 market forces, 6-7, 11, 14-17, 20, 21, 23, 34, 40, 41, 51, 56, 112-113 political issues, 26 Comprehensive operating agreements, 11-12 design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74, 99, 110 design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70, 91 Computer technology, 46, 48, 49 Consolidation, 4, 8, 46, 48-50 (passim), 66, 77, 84, 88-91 Construction of facilities, 11-12, 28, 35-36, 42, 46 see also Capital investment design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74, 99, 110 design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70, 91 Contracting services out, see Outsourcing Cost factors, 5, 6, 15, 23-24, 25, 28, 42, 46, 51, 52, 54, 57, 60, 61, 62, 77, 78, 79, 80, 85-88, 92, 96, 112, 125, 133 see also Capital investment; Funding; Pricing; Risk assessment and sharing contract preparation and bidding, 27, 44, 47, 64, 102 design-build-and-operate contracting, 45, 72-73 economies of scale, 4, 11, 20, 23, 46, 51, 68, 81-85, 88, 100; see also Regionalization economies of scope, 23, 85 lease financing, 74-75 outsourcing, 64, 65, 66, 68-69 performance benchmarking, 59, 92 political factors, 41, 42 public-private partnerships, 45, 72-75 regionalization, 89, 90-91 wastewater treatment, 12, 37, 48, 49 The Cost of Clean Water, 54 Cultural values see also Political issues community, 7, 106, 109, 111 organizational, 55, 58, 62 D Depreciation, 5, 53, 86 Design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74, 99, 110 tax law, 45 Design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70, 91 Disaster response, 27, 32, 49, 57 terrorism, viii, 43 E East Bay Municipal Utility District, 60, 6162, 82 Economic issues, vii, 1, 2, 3, 5-7, 10, 92-96, 100, 105-106 see also Capital investment; Competition issues; Cost factors; Employment issues; Pricing; Regionalization committee study charge, 11 depreciation, 5, 53, 86 economies of scale, 4, 11, 20, 23, 46, 51, 68, 81-85, 88, 100, see also Regionalization economies of scope, 23, 85 extent of privatization, 11, 14-17, 20, 21, 23, 34, 40, 67, 76 interest rates, 12, 27-28 market forces, 6-7, 11, 14-17, 20, 21, 23, 34, 40, 41, 51, 56, 67, 112-113 professional education, 46 Education and training, see Professional education Employment issues, 4, 5, 7, 8, 44, 61, 77, 81-82, 101 labor/management relations, 57, 61, 79, 101, 133-134 leadership/education, 45-46, 55, 65, 80, 113 outsourcing, 65, 66, 67 political issues, 56-57, 103-104, 125-126 regional, 108 worker productivity, 58

OCR for page 139
Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience England and Wales, see United Kingdom Enron Corporation, 25 Environmental issues, 5, 6, 10, 12-13, 42, 79, 96, 104-106, 107-108, 133 see also Health issues; Standards cost factors, 45 funding, 47, 48, 129 watersheds, 6, 8, 11, 25, 26, 82, 89, 91, 93, 104, 105, 106, 111-112 Environmental Protection Agency, 2-3, 36-37, 42, 47, 57, 84-85, 93, 102, 105, 128-130 see also Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act capital investment, 18, 129-130 committee study funding, 11 consumer confidence reports, 43, 128-129 historical perspectives, 35 outsourcing, 63, 65, 66, 67 public-private partnerships, 70-71, 78 Executive Order 12803, 52-53 F Federal government, 44-45, 50, 93 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Legislation funding, 3, 45, 54, 129 interest-rate subsidies, 27-28 Internal Revenue Service, 44-45, 64 taxation, 6, 8, 12, 27-28, 44-45, 51, 52-53, 101 Financial incentives, 2, 11, 44, 49, 50, 53, 59, 62, 77, 87, 91, 97, 99, 129 Foreign countries, see International perspectives Franchising arrangements, 11, 90 Full-service contract operation and management, 11-12 Funding, 3, 6, 12, 14, 18-19, 35-36, 38, 45, 53, 54, 79 see also Capital investment committee study, 11 commingling, 26-27 design-build-and-operate contracting, 45 environmental issues, general, 47, 48, 129 lease financing, 74 Safe Drinking Water Act, 47, 129 small and medium-sized utilities, 51-52, 53, 130 state-level, 6, 28, 36, 53 technological innovations, Clean Water Act, 35-36 G Geographic issues, see Community-level issues; Regionalization; Rural areas; State government Government role, see Community-level issues; Federal government; Funding; International perspectives; Legislation; Local government; Political issues; Regulatory issues; Standards; State-level issues Government Standards Board, 86 Great Britain, see United Kingdom H Health issues, 6, 10, 25, 26, 35-36, 42, 54, 93, 124-125 see also Standards cost factors, 45 disaster response, 27, 32, 49, 57 terrorism, viii, 43 historical perspectives, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33-34, 35-36, 42 public-private partnerships, 72 Historical perspectives, vii-viii, 1, 2-3, 10, 14, 15, 20, 24, 29-40, 44, 53, 70, 122, 123-126 capital investment, 33, 38, 125, 126 design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21 funding, 6 health issues, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33-34, 35-36, 42 international perspectives, 29-30, 38-40, 122, 123-126 Philadelphia Suburban Company, 20 pricing (rates), 37, 39, 112 small utilities and regionalization, 33, 50-51, 123-124 standards, 32-35, 38, 41

OCR for page 139
Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience technological innovations, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 48 urban areas, 29, 30, 31-33, 35, 38, 39, 48 wastewater treatment, 10, 35-37, 41, 42, 49 I Incentives, see Financial incentives Indianapolis Water Company, 24 Infrastructure, 18, 20, 39, 41, 53, 60, 81-85, 100, 132, 133 see also Capital investment; Construction of facilities; Operations, maintenance and repair Insurance, 12, 75, 133 Interest rates, 12, 27-28 Internal Revenue Service, 44-45, 64 International Organization for Standardization , 65-66 International perspectives, viii, 7, 13, 23 see also Terrorism economies of scope, 85 foreign ownership, 41, 46, 64, 85 historical, 29-30, 38-40, 122, 123-126 outsourcing, 64, 65-66, 68 performance benchmarking, 59 political issues, 23, 39, 121 pricing (rates), viii, 23, 39, 92, 124 standards, 65-66 terrorism, viii, 43 United Kingdom, 23, 38, 44, 59, 92, 121-127 urban areas, 23, 38, 39, 121-126 Irrigation, see Agriculture L Labor/management relations, 57, 61, 79, 101, 133-134 Lease financing, 27, 74-75 Legislation, 42, 43, 47, 62. 98 see also Regulatory issues; Standards Clean Water Act, 19, 35-36, 37, 45, 48 historical perspectives, 30, 32, 52 Safe Drinking Water Act, 3, 8, 19, 35, 37, 47, 51-52, 68, 89, 91, 105, 128-130 small utilities and regionalization, 50-51 Water Act (United Kingdom), 123-124 Litigation, 13, 49, 105 Local government, 2, 14, 20, 58, 77, 93, 95, 100, 101-104, 110, 124-125 see also Community-level issues; Regionalization; Urban areas M Maintenance and repair, see Operations, maintenance and repair Masons Water Yearbook, 23 Meters, 1, 61 N National Association of Water Companies, 3, 15, 77 Nonprofit organizations, 38 O Ondeo, 64 Operations, maintenance and repair, vii, viii, 1, 8, 76, 132 see also Outsourcing lease financing, 75 Outsourcing, 11-12, 20-21, 24, 39, 58, 62-69, 95, 110 see also Technical assistance capital investment, 66, 67 cost factors, 64, 65, 66, 68-69 employment issues, 65, 66, 67 Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, 63, 65, 66, 67 international perspectives, 64, 65-66, 68 political issues, 64, 65 service efficiencies, 65, 66 small and medium-sized utilities, 67-69 urban areas, 63, 64, 69 P Partnerships, public-private, 11, 24, 49-50, 54, 56, 58, 69-75 see also Technical assistance cost factors, 45, 72-75 design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74 tax law, 45

OCR for page 139
Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience Design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70 Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, 70-71, 78 Philadelphia Suburban Company, 20 Phoenix Water Service Department, 60-61 Political issues, 1-2, 5, 10, 13, 18-19, 25-26, 42-45, 47, 51, 56-57, 78-79, 87, 103-104, 110 see also Cultural values committee study charge, 11 competitive bidding, 26 cost, 41, 42 employment, 56-57, 103-104, 125-126 international perspectives, 23, 39, 121 outsourcing, 64, 65 pricing, 26, 56, 57, 59, 87 public disclosure/participation, 26, 56, 57, 59 regionalization and consolidation, 49, 90-91 risk sharing, 49 Pricing (rates), 5, 8, 10, 12, 18, 21, 24, 25, 46, 51, 54, 62, 76, 83, 86-88, 92, 94, 112 see also Cost factors ability to pay, 57, 102 benchmarking, 59 consumer attitudes, 42, 43 historical perspectives, 37, 39, 112 international perspectives, viii, 23, 39, 92, 124 lease financing, 75 local regulation, 20, 101, 102 meters, 1, 61 outsourcing, 64 political issues, 26, 56, 57, 59, 87 state regulation, 11, 14, 18, 37, 83, 47-48, 87-88, 91, 92, 94-96, 102 Professional education, 45-46, 55, 65, 113 Public Citizen group, 24 Public health, see Health issues Public Health Service, 32-33 R Rates, see Pricing (rates) Regionalization, 4, 11, 46, 60, 84-85, 88-91, 100, 106-109, 110, 121 see also Small and medium-sized utilities; State-level issues capital investment, 50-51, 53, 90-91 cost factors, general, 89, 90-91 economies of scale, 4, 11, 20, 23, 46, 51, 68, 81-85, 88, 100, see also Regionalization economies of scope, 23, 85 employment issues, 108 historical perspectives, 33, 50-51, 123-124 political factors, 49, 90-91 regulatory issues, 48 technological innovation, 50-51 Regulatory issues, vii, 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 22, 24, 26, 46-48, 88, 91-99, 133 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Risk assessment and sharing; Standards; Taxation competition, deregulation, 15, 45, 121-126 historical perspectives, 32-33, 37-38, 121-126 lease financing, 74 local pricing controls, 20, 101, 102 models of water service provision, 58, 60-61, 74, 77, 78-79, 92 organizational factors, 58 private regulatory measures, 44 regionalization and small utilities, 50 state regulation of pricing (rates), 11, 14, 18, 37, 83, 47-48, 87-88, 91, 92, 94-96, 102 Repair, see Operations, maintenance and repair Risk assessment and sharing, 11-12, 22, 41, 47, 49-50, 54, 77-78, 131, 134 bank guarantees, 12, 75 insurance, 12, 75, 133 international perspectives, 23 litigation, 13, 49, 105 urban areas, 49, 78 Rural areas, 67-69, 85 S Safe Drinking Water Act, 3, 8, 19, 35, 37, 47, 51-52, 68, 89, 91, 105, 128-130 Seattle Public Utilities Treatment Plant, 49, 131-134 Securities, see Stocks and shares Service efficiencies, 20, 50, 57, 58, 69, 79, 86, 101-102, 124, 131 outsourcing, 65, 66 Severn-Trent Environmental Services, 11

OCR for page 139
Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience Small and medium-sized utilities, viii, 7-8, 13, 14, 21-22, 46, 78, 111 see also Regionalization capital investment and regionalization, 50-51, 53 funding, 51-52, 53, 130 outsourcing, 67-69 risk sharing, 49 standards, 3-4, 28 technological innovation, 50-51 wastewater treatment, 7-8, 50 Standards, vii, viii, 2-3, 5, 7, 8, 19, 42, 47-48, 57, 84-85, 92, 101-102, 105 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Regulatory issues arsenic, 3, 47-48 asset management, 86 cost factors, 42, 43 Clean Water Act, 19, 35-36, 37, 45, 48 foreign-owned firms, 46 historical perspectives, 32-35, 38, 41 management, general, 26 outsourcing, 64, 65-66 performance benchmarks, 4, 47, 55, 59, 92, 101, 132-133 risk sharing, 49 Safe Water Drinking Act, 3, 8, 19, 35, 37, 47, 51-52, 68, 89, 91, 105, 128-130 small utilities and regionalization, 50-51 state-level, 47, 69, 91 State-level issues, 18, 38, 46, 96-88, 105, 113, 130 agricultural uses vs urban uses of water, 107-109 capital costs, 19, 53 funding, 6, 28, 36, 53 organizational structure, legislation, 58-59, 97-99 rates and charges, regulation, 11, 14, 18, 37, 83, 47-48, 87-88, 91, 92, 94-96, 102 regionalization and small utilities, 50 standards, water quality, 47, 69, 91 tax-exempt financing, 53 Stocks and shares, 25, 32, 37, 66, 110 T Taxation, 8, 77, 88 bonds, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53 exemptions, 6, 12, 27-28, 44-45, 51, 52-53, 101 Internal Revenue Service, 44-45, 64 lease financing, 74, 75 outsourcing, 63 Technical assistance, 12, 47, 50, 89, 102-103, 110 see also Outsourcing Technological innovations, vii,, 1, 8, 4, 13, 22-23, 41, 46, 48-49, 89, 111 Clean Water Act funding, 35-36 computer technology, 46, 48, 49 historical perspectives, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 48 international firms, viii professional education, 45-46 small utilities and regionalization, 50-51 water treatment, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36. 48-49 Telecommunications, 13, 15, 23, 90, 92 Terrorism, viii, 43 Troubled Waters, 124 U Unions, see Labor/management relations United Kingdom, 23, 38, 44, 59, 92, 121-127 United Water, 64 Urban areas, vii, 1, 10, 13, 14, 17, 24, 54-55, 60-61, 62, 77, 82-83, 85, 106-107, 131-134 agricultural uses and, 107-109 competitive bids, 26 historical perspectives, 29, 30, 31-33, 35, 38, 39, 48 international perspectives 23, 38, 39, 121-126 long-term water contracts, communities with, 22 organizational structure, 58-59 outsourcing, 63, 64, 69 Philadelphia Suburban Company, 20 public officials, 44 public-private partnerships, 70-73 risk assessment/sharing, 49, 78 W Wales, see England and Wales

OCR for page 139
Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience Wastewater treatment, 1, 2, 12, 15 chemicals, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36, 48-49 arsenic, 3, 47-48 committee study charge, 11 cost factors, 12, 37, 48, 49 design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21 federal grants, 20, 50 historical perspectives, 10, 35-37, 41, 42, 49 number of publicly owned, 12, 14 outsourcing, 63, 69 small and medium-sized utilities, 7-8, 50 technological innovations, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36, 48-49 Water Act (United Kingdom), 123-124 Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Authorities, 53, 54 Water Environmental Federation, 44 Water Infrastructure Network, 53, 54, 85 Watersheds, 6, 8, 11, 25, 26, 82, 89, 91, 93, 104, 105, 106, 111-112 Workforce issues, see Employment issues; Professional education

OCR for page 139