TABLE 2.1 Paeloclimatic Proxies

Paleoclimatic Recorder

Climate Variable Recorded

Property Measured

Ice

Atmospheric composition

Trapped bubbles

 

Windiness

Dust grain sizes

 

Source strength of wind-blown materials

Abundance of pollen, dust, sea salt

 

Temperature

Ice isotopic ratios

Borehole temperatures

Gas isotopes

Melt layers

 

Snow accumulation rate

Thickness of annual layers

In-situ radiocarbon

Ocean sediments and corals

Temperature

Species assemblages

Shell geochemistry

Alkenone (U37K' ) thermometry

 

Salinity

Shell isotopes after correction for temperature and ice volume

 

Ice volume

Isotopic composition of pore waters

Shell isotopes after correction for temperature and salinity

 

pH

Ocean circulation

Boron isotopes in shells

Cd/Ca in shells

Carbon-isotopic data

 

Corrosiveness/chemistry of ambient waters

Shell dissolution

Lake and bog sediments

Temperature

Species assemblages

Shell geochemistry

 

Atmospheric temperature and soil moisture

Washed- or blown-in materials including pollen and spores

Macrofossils such as leaves, needles, beetles, midge flies, etc.

 

Water balance (precipitation minus evaporation

Species assemblages

Shell geochemistry

Tree rings

Temperature and/or moisture availability

Ring width or density of trees stressed by cold or drought

 

Variations in the isotopic ratio of water related to temperature

Cellulose isotopic ratios

Speleothems/cave formations

Moisture availability

Growth rate of formations

Isotopic ratios of water related to temperature or precipitation rate

Oxygen isotopic composition

 

Overlying vegetation

Carbon-isotopic composition



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