developing countries, 8, 140-141, 164-165, 167

Dust Bowl, 43-44, 53-55

El Niño, 119, 133, 147

floods, 121-122, 134, 146, 164, 166

forcing, 121-122, 134-141

global warming, 116, 129-132, 137, 141, 143, 150-151, 152

insurance, 9, 148, 164, 166

modeling, 5, 129-131, 141-142, 160

“no-regrets” strategies, 8-9, 164-166

nonmarket accounts, 3, 128, 154, 158

recreation and leisure, 148, 149

research, 71;

see also Funding

water supply, 17, 51, 115, 139, 144-146, 152, 156, 166;

see also Drought

Eemian rapid climate change, 38-40

El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 14, 48, 50-52, 67, 69, 71-72, 85, 90, 112, 129, 136

Holocene rapid climate change, 40, 41-42, 44

precessional insolation, 87

socioeconomic effects, 119, 133, 147

Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean array, 47

Energy-balance models, 74, 75

Europe

Atlantic thermohaline circulation, 81, 89 disease, 147-148

Eemian climate change, 39

Little Ice Age, 118

North Atlantic Oscillation, 57

Younger Dryas, 30-31, 34

Evapotranspiration, 54, 55

Extinction, species, see Biodiversity

F

Fires, 3, 9, 135, 136, 141, 158, 164, 166

Fisheries, 60, 61, 138

Floods, 29, 136, 152, 164

Atlantic Ocean, impact on, 76

Holocene period, 40, 44-45, 65

socioeconomic impacts, 121-122, 134, 146, 164, 166

Forcing and forcing thresholds, 2, 3, 4, 8, 13, 14, 17, 59, 73, 84, 86-88, 107, 111, 114, 154, 158

see also Global warming

Holocene droughts, 44

hysteresis, 93-94, 95, 98-99

models, 74, 75-76, 93-94, 95-97, 100-101

socioeconomic impacts, 121-122, 134-141

oceanic response, 46, 52, 62, 65, 79, 93-94, 95, 103-104

Forecasting, weather events, 3, 8, 105, 116, 123, 158, 164, 165-166

Forests, 3, 84, 86, 128, 129, 133-136

(passim), 138, 142-144

fires, 3, 9, 135, 136, 141, 158, 164, 166

Freshwater balance, 6-7, 16, 65, 71, 76, 79, 80, 82, 91, 94, 117, 156-157, 158

see also Salinity;

Thermohaline circulation

global warming, 110, 113-114

groundwater, 20, 22, 54, 117, 139, 145, 146, 157

water supply, 17, 51, 115, 139, 144-146, 152, 156, 166

Funding

committee study at hand, 2, 18

“no-regrets” strategies, 8-9

paleoclimatic research, 6

G

General circulation models (GCMs), 83, 92, 97, 99-100, 101, 103, 104

GENESIS model, 82

Glaciers,

see Land ice

Global Change Research Program, 2, 17

Global warming, 8, 43, 55, 62, 82, 105, 107-117, 137

see also Greenhouse gases

freshwater balance, 110, 113-114

socioeconomic impacts, 116, 129-132, 137, 141, 143, 150-151, 152

Greenhouse effect, 1, 86, 107-117, 113, 137, 138, 146-147

see also Global warming

carbon dioxide, 22, 77, 80, 83, 89, 111, 114, 131-132, 138, 143, 144, 150-151

dust, 21, 25, 27, 30, 36, 80, 83, 86, 144

methane, 25, 27, 30, 36, 83, 87-88, 108, 109, 136, 147



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