“no-regrets” strategies, 8, 165

water vapor, 71, 83-84

Greenland, 6, 15, 36-37, 77, 83, 102, 135-136, 139-140, 156, 162

Eemian climate change, 39

fisheries, 60

Younger Dryas interval, 25-29, 30, 37

Groundwater, 20, 22, 54, 117, 139, 145, 146, 157

H

Hadley circulation, 81-82, 84, 85, 87

Health effects, 146-148, 135, 136, 146-149, 158

Heinrich events, 38, 74, 78, 89, 115

Historical observations, 3, 7, 11, 45-48, 53-69, 70-72, 74

see also Economic factors;

Social influences and effects

committee report methodology, 17

forest dieback, 135

Holocene rapid climate change, 42, 43-44

Historical perspectives, research, 19, 46

modeling, 74-75

Holocene rapid climate change, 40-45, 52, 69-70, 74, 119, 144

Hurricanes, 125, 165-166

Hydrology, 54, 70, 110, 114, 154, 156-157

see also Floods;

Freshwater balance;

Oceans;

Precipitation

committee research recommendations, 2, 3, 7

groundwater, 20, 22, 54, 117, 139, 145, 146, 157

Holocene floods, 65

Hysteresis, 93-94, 95, 98-99

I

Ice, 2, 3, 21, 154

see also Land ice

sea ice, 3, 38, 46, 47, 48, 62, 65, 71, 78-80, 113-114, 115, 117, 154

Antarctica, 26, 35, 36, 65-67, 69, 77, 78

Arctic Ocean, 65, 114, 117, 140

Ice ages, 1, 10, 14-15, 23, 38, 45, 69-70, 77-78, 107

Little Ice Age, 43, 45, 56, 57, 74, 163

Ice core evidence, 6, 19, 24, 25-30, 36, 66, 135-136, 162

Eemian climate change, 39

Holocene rapid climate change, 42

Younger Dryas interval, 25-30, 32

Indian Ocean, 67, 68, 72

El Niño, 50, 53

tropical variability, 52-53

Younger Dryas, 35-36

Insurance, 9, 148, 164, 166

Interannual variations, 5, 6, 7, 42, 49

see also El Niño/Southern Oscillation;

Ice core evidence

Arctic Oscillation, 48, 49, 50, 52, 57-58, 60, 62, 65, 67-68, 113

dendrochronology, 19-20, 21, 24, 42, 135

North Atlantic Oscillation, 44, 49, 57-58

Interdisciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 116, 133

International Civil Aviation Organization, 61

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, 42

Isotopic indicators, 20, 22-23, 108

radiocarbon measurements, 21, 24, 30, 33-34, 47, 108

Younger Dryas interval, 25, 30, 33-34

L

Land ice, 3, 20, 22, 52, 73, 78-80, 86, 88-89, 139-140, 145, 154, 156-157

see also Greenland;

Ice ages;

Ice core

evidenceDansgaard/Oeschger

oscillations, 36-37

freshwater discharges from, 76, 101, 116-117

global warming, 113-115

Holocene rapid climate change, 40-41

interglacial periods, 38-40

methane releases, 87-88

models, 75-76, 83, 101, 102, 105



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement