Hadley circulation, 81-82, 84, 85, 87

models, other than GCMs, 75, 76, 82, 91-102, 160

see also Thermohaline circulation

deepwater, 2, 3, 4, 34, 36-37, 38, 47, 63, 66, 67, 76, 77, 78, 79, 103-104, 108, 154, 155-156, 160, 162

fisheries, 60, 61, 138

forcing, response to, 46, 52, 62, 65, 79, 93-94, 95, 103-104

heat transport, 64, 65, 66, 75, 76-78, 81, 85-86;

see also Thermohaline circulation

ice, 3, 38, 46, 47, 48, 62, 65, 71, 78-80, 113-114, 115, 117, 154

Antarctica, 26, 35, 36, 65-67, 69, 77, 78

Arctic Ocean, 65, 114, 117, 140

isotopic measurements, 23

methane releases, 87-88

paleoclimatology, 6-7

sea level, 39, 78, 109, 114, 115, 116, 131, 140, 156, 130-131, 133, 148

sea surface, 36, 47, 50, 51, 52, 61-62, 64-65, 71-72, 77, 78, 82, 84, 90, 101, 104, 109-110

Antarctic Oscillation, 49

Arctic Oscillation, 48, 49, 50, 52, 57-58, 60

North Atlantic Oscillation, 44, 49, 57-58, 60-61

see also El Niño/Southern Oscillation

sediments and corals, 21, 23, 34-35, 38, 45, 85, 129

Heinrich layers, 38, 74, 78, 89, 115

sinks, 47-48, 71, 89, 109

Ozone layer depletion, 58

P

Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 51-52, 67, 68

Pacific North American pattern, 50

Pacific Ocean, other, 67, 70, 77-78, 84, 90, 156

see also El Niño/Southern Oscillation

Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean array, 47

Paleoclimate proxies and age indicators, 10, 11, 19-55, 88-89, 113, 114, 118, 153, 156

see also Ice core evidence;

Sediment analyses

biodiversity, 136-137

committee report methodology, 17

committee research recommendations, 2, 5-7, 154, 161-163

Dansgaard/Oeschger oscillations, 36-37, 74, 77, 83, 89

dendrochronology, 19-20, 21, 24, 42, 135

forest dieback, 134-135

Heinrich events, 38, 74, 78, 89, 115, 108

radiocarbon measurements, 21, 24, 30, 33-34, 47, 108

isotopic indicators, 20, 22-23

precipitation, 21, 23, 53, 118

Younger Dryas interval, 14, 15, 24-36, 37, 41, 74, 77, 79, 89, 128, 163, 165

models, 83, 102, 105

PAst Global changES (PAGES), 42

Permafrost/tundra, 3, 22, 57, 70, 88, 113-114, 116-117, 136, 157

Policy perspectives, 1-2

definitional issues, 14

“no-regrets” strategies, 8-9, 164-166

Pollen, 23, 30-34, 39

Precipitation, 21, 23, 53, 58, 84-85, 86, 110, 114, 118, 122, 132, 137, 152, 153, 156-157

see also Droughts;

Floods

R

Radiocarbon measurements, 21, 24, 30, 33-34, 47, 108

Recreation and leisure, 148, 149

Regional climate change, 1, 10, 11, 16, 49, 58, 59, 70, 135, 155

see also Droughts;

Floods;

Tropical regions;

specific world regions and oceans

Eemian climate change, 39

Holocene rapid climate change, 40, 41, 42

human population migrations, 140-141

“no-regrets” strategies, 9

pollen evidence, 30-34, 39

socioeconomic impacts, 129-132

Younger Dryas interval, 30-34



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