today in high northern latitudes, bringing warmer conditions, at least during summers (Montoya et al., 1998). This probably led to major retreat of the Greenland ice sheet, which likely explains high sea levels during that interval without major changes in the West Antarctic ice sheet (Cuffey and Marshall, 2000). Ice-core records from Greenland for this interval originally were interpreted as showing extremely large and rapid climate fluctuations, but flow disturbances are now known to have occurred and affected the records (Alley et al., 1995; Chappellaz et al., 1997).

Much work remains to be done on intact records from the Eemian, but it is increasingly clear from many paleoclimatic archives that although the Eemian included important paleoclimatic variability and ended abruptly, the warm period was not as variable as the periods during the slide into and climb out of the ice age that followed. In this relative stability, the Eemian had much in common with the current warm period, the Holocene.

A comprehensive survey of Eemian paleoclimatic conditions is not yet available, but a few examples of results are highlighted here. Notable variations in Eemian conditions perhaps linked to changes in oceanic circulation were documented by Fronval et al. (1998) and Bjorck et al. (2000). North Atlantic surface-water temperature fluctuations during the Eemian may have been 1-2°C, as opposed to fluctuations of 3-4°C during the cold stage that followed immediately and a deglacial warming into the Eemian of about 7°C (Oppo et al., 1997).

European pollen records are interpreted by Cheddadi et al. (1998) as indicating one rapid shift to cooler temperatures of 6 to 10°C between 4,000 and 5,000 years after the beginning of the Eemian, followed by smaller fluctuations of 2 to 4°C and 200 to 400 mm water/yr in the following few millennia. However, Boettger et al. (2000) found that the Eemian climate as recorded in isotopic data from central Germany was relatively stable, and the Eemian climate oscillations recorded in pollen records from the Iberian Margin similarly had low amplitude (Goñi et al., 1999). Cortijo et al. (2000) found that mid-latitude North Atlantic conditions during the Eemian involved no major instabilities, but that the cooling into the following glaciation occurred abruptly in less than 400 years.

Large fluctuations reconstructed for Lake Naivasha (Kenya) from sediment characteristics and diatom assemblages bear similarities to those observed during the Holocene (Trauth et al., 2001). This is at least suggestive of a general pattern of relatively more important fluctuations in low-latitude moisture availability during warm times and high-latitude temperatures during cold times.

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