APPENDIX D
Tabulations of Responses to Survey Part 2

TABLE D-1 Question 1: Please tell us about the types of services that you provide. What services are directly operated, and which ones do you contract?

Type of Service

Directly Operated

Responding Systems

Bus

151

200

DR (ADA)

91

187

DR (dial-a-ride)

62

115

Commuter rail

1

7

Heavy rail

10

10

Light rail

12

12

Vanpool

18

30

Ferryboat

6

10

Other

10

18

Total responding

 

237

NOTE: DR=demand-responsive service.

TABLE D-2 Number of Systems Reporting Contracted Service by Type of Service

Type of Service

Responding Systems

Bus

77

DR

123

Ferry

1

Commuter rail

1

Total responding systems with contracted service

144

NOTE: Some systems contract for more than one service.



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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience APPENDIX D Tabulations of Responses to Survey Part 2 TABLE D-1 Question 1: Please tell us about the types of services that you provide. What services are directly operated, and which ones do you contract? Type of Service Directly Operated Responding Systems Bus 151 200 DR (ADA) 91 187 DR (dial-a-ride) 62 115 Commuter rail 1 7 Heavy rail 10 10 Light rail 12 12 Vanpool 18 30 Ferryboat 6 10 Other 10 18 Total responding   237 NOTE: DR=demand-responsive service. TABLE D-2 Number of Systems Reporting Contracted Service by Type of Service Type of Service Responding Systems Bus 77 DR 123 Ferry 1 Commuter rail 1 Total responding systems with contracted service 144 NOTE: Some systems contract for more than one service.

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-3 Question 2: Does your agency have a specific unit to monitor the performance of contracted services? If “Yes,” then how many employees does this unit employ? Special Monitoring Unit Number Percent Average No. of Employees Yes 91 63% 4.2 No 53 37% 0 Total responding 144 100%   TABLE D-4 Question 3: Do you monitor overhead costs for contracted services? If so, please check off the areas that you monitor. Areas Monitored for Overhead Cost Responding Systems Contract administration 52 National Transit Database reporting 51 Vehicle inspection 50 Maintenance 49 Driver instruction 36 Cash counting 35 Operations management 31 Internal audit 28 Dispatch 26 Liability 25 Street supervision 23 Accounts payable 19 Workers compensation 18 Depreciation 11 Human resources 11 Other 11 Total responding 144

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-5 Question 4: We want to know your general views on contracting transit services. Rate the following areas in terms of the issues or benefits that you have experienced when contracting.   Responding Systems Area Large Problems Minor Problems Neither/Depends Some Benefits Large Benefits Operating costs 4 9 14 58 48 Cost-efficiency 3 12 8 68 45 Amount of service 5 10 40 33 38 Labor-management relations 4 14 50 24 25 Labor productivity 3 19 40 42 18 Ridership 2 7 60 46 9 Time demands on staff 12 32 38 22 22 Service quality 10 41 29 42 12 Employee morale 1 27 68 15 9 Accidents 7 13 81 18 4 On-time performance 13 38 47 28 5 Contract disputes 8 34 60 8 6 Customer service 17 51 23 29 10 Employee turnover 15 31 50 13 3 Workforce retention 20 32 37 11 9 NOTE: Each respondent was asked to check one response per area.

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-6 Question 5: Please describe the positive effects of contracting in more detail below. Positive Effects Responding Systems Reduced operating cost 79 Reduced administration 35 Flexibility 29 Expertise of contractor 28 More service 23 Contractor handles all 14 Avoid capital costs 14 Competitive environment 12 Reduces hiring/staff 10 Public image/political 10 Only way to start ADA 8 Total responding 144 NOTE: Written answers were coded into categories by the committee. TABLE D-7 Question 6, Part 1: Please describe the negative effects of contracting in more detail below. Negative Effects Responding Systems Limited control 59 Quality/customer service 48 Contractor issues 22 Communication 21 Turnover/low wages 20 Need to monitor 19 Personnel issues 14 Public/political issues 13 Diminishing returns 12 Union issues 7 Total responding 117 NOTE: Written answers were coded into categories by the committee.

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-8 Question 6, Part 2: Please describe any actions you took to mitigate these negative effects. Action Responding Systems Improved contract 22 Communication 10 Personnel/training 7 Additional monitoring 7 Enforcement 2 Agency actions 2 Total responding 40 NOTE: Written answers were coded into categories by the committee. TABLE D-9 Question 7, Part 2: In your opinion, how have the results of transit service contracting met your expectations? How Did Contracting Meet Expectations? Responding Systems Fully met 79 Partially met 54 Did not meet 6 Total responding 139 TABLE D-10 Question 7, Part 2: If contracting did not meet or only partially met your expectations, please explain in more detail. Why Contracting Fell Below Expectations Responding Systems Contractor issues 23 Service quality/customer service 23 Benefits not fully realized 13 Not enough control 6 Too few bidders 3 Personnel issues 4 Total responding 49 NOTE: Written answers were coded into categories by the committee.

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-11 Question 8: What advice would you give to an agency considering contracting for the first time? Advice Responding Systems Outline specific duties/responsibilities 54 Specify performance requirements 47 Monitor contract performance 38 Scrutinize contractors beforehand 24 Talk to other agencies 23 Teamwork/communication with contractor 20 Competitive procedure, not low cost 19 Combine rewards and penalties 18 Clear mechanism to make changes 14 Identify elements to contract re agency goals 14 Specify wage rates/cost escalation 13 Penalty clauses/liquidated damages 12 Begin with internal cost analysis 12 Provide vehicles/facility/maintenance/eligibility 10 Be flexible 10 Broad involvement in RFP process 10 Contractor provides vehicle/fuel/routing 5 Other 18 Total responding 117 NOTE: Written answers were coded into categories by the committee. TABLE D-12 Questions 9 and 14: What year did your agency first begin contracting for fixed-route bus or demand-responsive services? Year Began Contracting Bus DR Other Percent 1980 and prior 18 21 0 21% 1981–1985 18 19 0 20% 1986–1990 13 22 0 19% 1991–1995 13 39 1 29% 1996–2000 11 10 0 11% Total responding 73 111 1 100%

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-13 Questions 10 and 15: To the best of your knowledge, what factors did you consider when deciding to contract for fixed-route bus or demand-response services? Factors Considered Major Reason Important Factor Minor Factor Not a Factor FIXED-ROUTE BUS Start new services 33 14 5 23 Reduce costs 30 20 7 18 Improve cost-efficiency 26 21 8 20 Competitive environment 13 16 10 36 Expand services 12 19 5 39 More flexibility 10 16 14 35 Board direction 11 16 7 41 Higher-quality service 10 10 15 40 State mandate or law 3 5 4 63 Federal emphasis 2 3 13 57 DEMAND-RESPONSIVE Start new services 50 25 7 35 Reduce costs 47 25 11 34 Improve cost-efficiency 49 22 14 32 Competitive environment 21 26 16 54 Expand services 22 26 11 58 More flexibility 13 34 17 53 Board direction 14 21 21 61 Higher-quality service 8 26 23 60 State mandate or law 14 7 6 90 Federal emphasis 6 7 17 87 TABLE D-14 Questions 11 and 16: How do you obtain these bus or demand-responsive services? How Services Obtained Bus DR Other Percent Competitive bidding 36 57 1 47% Negotiated procurement 10 22 0 16% Combination 27 32 0 30% Other 4 9 0 7% Total responding 77 120 1 100%

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-15 Questions 12 and 17: How has the number of bidders changed overtime? Change in Number of Bidders Bus DR Total Contracts Increased 11 11 22 Stayed about the same 53 78 131 Declined 9 22 32 Total responding 73 111 185 TABLE D-16 Questions 13 and 18: If you do not competitively bid these services, why not? Why Not Competitively Bid? Bus DR Total Contracts Satisfied with current 5 7 12 Few qualified firms 3 5 8 Board policy direction 1 3 4 Other 3 3 6 Total responding 12 18 30 TABLE D-17 Question 19: Why do you not contract for transit services? Reason for Not Contracting Major Reason Important Factor Minor Factor No Factor Maintain control 33 18 9 27 Not cost-effective 22 25 6 34 No reason to change 18 23 9 37 Lack of qualified firms 11 9 9 58 Board direction 10 10 5 62 Union contract 7 9 4 67 Section 13c prevents 8 5 4 70 Too few bidders 7 6 0 74 Proposed bids too high 6 3 1 77 State laws limit ability 0 2 1 84

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-18 Question 20: Did your agency contract for transit services in the past? Contract in Past? Responding Systems Yes 30 No 63 Total responding 93 TABLE D-19 Question 20, Part 2: Why did you stop contracting? Why Stop Contracting Responding Systems Regain control 7 Improve service quality 7 Cost savings in house 6 Contractor issues 6 Contractor opted out 6 Escalating costs 4 Few qualified contractors 3 Internal changes 2 Other 3 Total responding 30 TABLE D-20 Question 21: If you had to do it all over again, and the choice were solely yours, would you contract for transit services now? Would You Contract Now? Responding Systems Yes 104 No 65 Unsure 13 Total 182

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Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience TABLE D-21 Responses to Question 21 by Whether Systems Currently Contract or Do Not Contract Would You Contract Now? Currently Contract Do Not Contract Yes 89 15 No 16 49 Unsure 9 4 Total responding 114 68 TABLE D-22 Question 21, Part 2: Why would you contract now (for those who answered yes to Part 1 of Question 21)? Why Contract Now? Responding Systems Cost/cost-effectiveness 32 Positive experience 15 Flexibility 13 Minimizes administration 9 Timely/logical for ADA 7 Process works 7 Higher level of service 4 Political/public benefits 4 Other 9 Total 64 TABLE D-23 Question 21, Part 2 (for those who answered no to Part 1 of Question 21): Why would you not contract now? Why Not Contract? Responding Systems Direct control 12 System in place works 13 Service quality 8 Collaboration with union 2 Too many problems 6 Few qualified contractors 7 Not cost-effective 8 Total 40

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