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APPENDIXES



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Page 49 APPENDIXES

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Page 50

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Page 51 Appendix A1 Interim Report

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Page 52

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Page 53 IMPROVING OPERATIONS AND LONG-TERM SAFETY OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT INTERIM REPORT Committee on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Page 54 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this interim report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Grant No. DE-FC01-94EW54069. All opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Energy. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06928-9 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Page 55 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. iii

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Page 56 Committee on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant B. JOHN GARRICK, Chair, PLG, Incorporated (retired), Laguna Beach, California MARK D. ABKOWITZ, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee ALFRED W. GRELLA, Grella Consulting, Locust Grove, Virginia MIKE P. HARDY, Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, Colorado STANLEY KAPLAN, Bayesian Systems Inc., Rockville, Maryland HOWARD M. KINGSTON, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania W. JOHN LEE, Texas A&M University, College Station MILTON LEVENSON, Bechtel International, Inc. (retired), Menlo Park, California WERNER F. LUTZE, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque KIMBERLY OGDEN, University of Arizona, Tucson MARTHA R. SCOTT, Texas A&M University, College Station JOHN M. SHARP, JR., The University of Texas, Austin PAUL G. SHEWMON, Ohio State University (retired), Columbus JAMES WATSON, JR., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill CHING H. YEW, The University of Texas (retired), Austin Board on Radioactive Waste Management Liaison DARLEANE C. HOFFMAN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oakland, California Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Director THOMAS E. KIESS, Study Director ANGELA R. TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant iv

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Page 57 Board on Radioactive Waste Management JOHN F. AHEARNE, Chair, Sigma Xi and Duke University, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina CHARLES MCCOMBIE, Vice-Chair, Consultant, Gipf-Oberfrick, Switzerland ROBERT M. BERNERO, Consultant, Bethesda, Maryland ROBERT J. BUDNITZ, Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, California GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, Florida State University, Tallahassee JAMES H. JOHNSON, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. ROGER E. KASPERSON, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts JAMES O. LECKIE, Stanford University, Stanford, California JANE C.S. LONG, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada, Reno ALEXANDER MACLACHLAN, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (retired), Wilmington, DE WILLIAM A. MILLS, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (retired), Olney, Maryland MARTIN J. STEINDLER, Argonne National Laboratories (retired), Argonne, Illinois ATSUYUKI SUZUKI, University of Tokyo, Japan JOHN J. TAYLOR, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), Palo Alto, California VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Director ROBERT S. ANDREWS, Senior Staff Officer THOMAS E. KIESS, Senior Staff Officer GREGORY H. SYMMES, Senior Staff Officer JOHN R. WILEY, Senior Staff Officer SUSAN B. MOCKLER, Research Associate TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative Associate LATRICIA C. BAILEY, Senior Project Assistant MATTHEW BAXTER-PARROTT, Project Assistant LAURA D. LLANOS, Senior Project Assistant ANGELA R. TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant v

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Page 58 Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (Retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia LYNN GOLDMAN, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense, Oakland, California EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Maryland, College Park DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, DC BRAD MOONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (Emeritus), Knoxville ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer DAVID FEARY, Scientific Reports Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst vi

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Page 59 Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Tom Borak, Colorado State University Edith Boyden, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Robert Budnitz, Future Resources Associates, Inc. Allen Glazner, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lawrence Johnson, National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste Joseph Leary, Independent Consultant Solomon Levy, Levy & Associates Hank Mevzelaar, University of Utah Randall Seright, New Mexico Institute of Technology Although the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by E-an Zen, appointed by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, and Frank Parker, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with NRC procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC. vii

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Page 98 as a means of checking on conformity with the DOT regulations (e.g., 40 CFR 173 and 40 CFR 177) and USNRC regulations (e.g., 10 CFR 71) that address the transport of flammable and/or gas-generating substances with radioactive materials (Mewhinney, 1998b). These regulations include the following statements: 49 CFR 173.21(g): “Packages which give off a flammable gas or vapor, released from a material not otherwise subject to this subchapter, likely to create a flammable mixture with air in a transport vehicle” are forbidden. 49 CFR 173.21(h): “Packages containing materials which will detonate in a fire” are forbidden. 49 CFR 173.24(b)(3): “There will be no mixture of gases or vapors in the package which could, through any credible spontaneous increase of heat or pressure, significantly reduce the effectiveness of the packaging.” 49 CFR 177.848 specifies that flammable gases and radioactive materials “may not be loaded, transported, or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation unless separated in a manner that, in the event of leakage from packages under conditions normally incident to transportation, commingling of hazardous materials would not occur.” 10 CFR 71.43(d): “A package must be made of materials and construction that assure that there will be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction among the packaging components, among package contents, or between the packaging components and the package contents, including possible reaction resulting from in leakage of water, to the maximum credible extent. Account must be taken of the behavior of materials under irradiation.” DOE has proposed the headspace gas sampling procedure in its application to the USNRC for a licensing certificate on the transportation package (named the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter, or TRUPACT-II) that is loaded with waste containers for transport by truck to WIPP. Repackaging of Waste to Meet Wattage Limits Imposed by a Radiolytic Gas Generation Model. Gas generation can occur during the transport of a waste container to WIPP. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in TRU waste comes from the co-disposal of organic materials (containing hydrogen) with alpha-emitting radionuclides, which irradiate the organic matter to produce H+ ions that combine to form H2 molecules. The current gas generation model is based on assumptions about the configuration of organic materials and radionuclides. It relates the concentration of hydrogen gas in any headspace to the alpha activity (i.e., activity from alpha-emitting radionuclides) within each waste container. More than one gaseous headspace can exist in a waste container, palmarily because TRU waste, when generated and disposed in DOE facilities, was contained within layers of confinement provided by plastic bags that may still be intact and thereby inhibit the flow of hydrogen. 34

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Page 99 By placing a 5 percent (mole fraction) limit on the maximum H2 concentration within any headspace, this gas generation model calculates an upper limit, commonly expressed as a maximum thermal wattage, on the alpha activity allowed for the entire waste container. These wattage limits are a function of the waste materials and the number of layers of confinement provided by plastic bags. Because of its conservatism, the value of 5 percent H2 (as a mole fraction) in air as a “flammability limit” can be used in any USNRC license application for a transportation package without the need for further safety analysis. For example, for a 55-gallon drum containing a plastic liner and heterogeneous debris with plutonium inside three layers of sealed plastic bags, the wattage limit is approximately 0.028 W (DOE, 1996b, p. 5-6e), which corresponds to a limit of 14 g (0.89 Ci) of plutonium-239 or 0.049 g (0.84 Ci) of plutonium-238. Waste containers containing more wattage than the maximum value allowed by the model have their waste contents repackaged to distribute the TRU waste into configurations that will meet these wattage limits. This is accomplished by spilling these contents into shielded gloveboxes and dividing the waste into several new containers, each filled with a fraction of the contents of the original waste container. At Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1998-1999, gas generation restrictions resulted in the repackaging of 36 drums of plutonium-238 waste from the waste stream “TA-55-43” into approximately 120 drums that were placed inside standard waste boxes.4 The output of the characterization program is a set of characterization data for each waste container. If the characterization information is within acceptable limits as determined by the waste acceptance criteria and quality assurance program plan (or waste analysis plan) specifications, the waste container is certified and approved for shipment to WIPP. Truck Transportation to WIPP At the DOE sites containing TRU waste, the certified TRU waste containers are loaded inside TRUPACT-II shipping containers that are then sealed with a vacuum-tight seal. The TRUPACT-II is classified and regulated as a “Type B” package for fissile materials.5 To ensure that the waste contents are safely contained during normal shipment conditions and accident scenarios, this transportation package must meet design features such as double containment (i.e., it must have an inner and outer container) and a vacuum seal. Within the inner container, two standard waste boxes, fourteen 55-gallon drums, or one standard waste box and seven 55-gallon drums can be placed. These waste containers are loaded into the TRUPACT-II using an overhead crane in a bay of a building that a truck can drive into to avoid the need to unfasten the TRUPACT-II from the trailer. 4A 55-gallon drum has a volume of approximately 0.2 m3, whereas a standard waste box is a 1.9m3 container that can hold three 55-gallon drums. 5This designation is a regulatory term to designate packages used to transport plutonium isotopes, which are contained in TRU waste. 35

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Page 100 The trucks travel to WIPP on approved highway routes during approved times and maintain communication with a DOE control center. In addition to a cellular telephone and a citizens band radio, each truck contains a satellite transponder that enables it to be tracked en route using DOE's satellite-based telecommunications system, the TRANSportation Tracking and COMmunication (TRANSCOM) System. The TRUPACT-IIs are inspected at the WIPP site and their contents (waste-filled drums or boxes) are unloaded and delivered to an underground elevator for emplacement into rooms excavated in the subsurface salt bed. 36

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Page 101 Appendix B Joint USNRC and EPA Guidance on Mixed Waste A joint U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) document (62 FR 62079, 1997) provides regulatory guidance outlining the testing requirements for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste. In this dual agency guidance document, the EPA and USNRC position is that a combination of common sense, modified sampling procedures, and cooperation between state and federal regulatory agencies will minimize any hazards associated with sampling and testing mixed waste. Waste generators may determine whether their waste is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste based on knowledge of the materials or chemical processes that were used. That is, RCRA regulations do not require testing of the waste. Therefore, where sufficient knowledge of materials or of the process exists, the generator need not test the waste to determine that it possesses a hazardous characteristic, which would necessitate that RCRA be applied (although generators and subsequent handlers would be in violation of RCRA if they managed hazardous waste erroneously classified as nonhazardous outside the RCRA hazardous waste system). For this reason, facilities wishing to minimize testing often assume that a questionable waste is hazardous and handle it accordingly. Flexibility exists in the hazardous waste regulations for generators; operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; and mixed waste permit writers to tailor mixed waste sampling and analysis programs to address radiation hazards. For example, upon the request of a generator, a person preparing a RCRA permit for such a facility has the flexibility to minimize the frequency of mixed waste testing by specifying a low testing frequency in a facility's waste analysis plan. The EPA position, as stated in 55 FR 22669 (1990), is that the frequency of testing is best determined on a case-by-case basis by the permit writer. The joint USNRC-EPA agency guidance document (62 FR 62079, 1997) appears to the committee to provide appropriate guidelines for implementation and integration of RCRA requirements for mixed TRU waste. Implementation of this regulatory guidance could significantly reduce the testing protocols and associated radiation exposure of personnel. At present, the procedures specified in the waste acceptance criteria 37

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Page 102and quality assurance program plan documents and in the RCRA Part B permit for the testing of mixed waste seem at odds with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. 38

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Page 103 Appendix C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members B. John Garrick, Chair, independent consultant, is a co-founder of PLG, Inc., an international engineering, applied science, and management consulting firm in Newport Beach, California. He received his B.S. degree from Brigham Young University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in engineering and applied science from the University of California, Los Angeles. His professional interests involve risk assessment in applications in fields such as nuclear energy, space, and defense, and in the chemical, petroleum, and transportation industries. He has received numerous awards, including the Society for Risk Analysis Distinguished Achievement Award. He was appointed to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste in 1994, for which he is now Chairman. Dr. Garrick was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1993. He has been a member of the Committee on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant since 1989. Mark Abkowitz, professor of civil engineering at Vanderbilt University and director of the Center for Environmental Management Studies, has many years of experience in hazardous materials transport. He has published widely on transportation issues such as the risks of transporting high-level radioactive waste. He is a member and former chairman of the NRC Transportation Research Board standing committee on hazardous materials transport. Alfred W. Grella, independent nuclear and hazardous materials transportation consultant, retired in 1990 from a career in U.S. government service, first at the Department of Transportation and later at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. His distinguished career spans 40 years as a professional in health physics, health protection, transportation, inspection and enforcement, training, and related regulatory activities. Mr. Grella received a Bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of Connecticut and completed the one-year management program at the National Defense University Industrial College of the Armed Forces. He has authored over 30 published papers. He is a member of the American Nuclear Society and a Fellow of the Health Physics Society. Mr. Grella received the M. Sacid (Sarge) Ozker Award in 1996 for distinguished serv- 39

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Page 104ice and eminent achievement in the field of radioactive waste management. Michael Hardy, president of Agapito Associates, Inc., has experience in numerical modeling and field experimentation in practical, engineeringoriented studies to gather characterization data and to evaluate the merits of design features of proposed high-level waste repositories. Dr. Hardy is a member of the Society of Mining, Metallurgical and Exploration Engineers, Inc., and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is Chairman of the Underground Technical Research Council, a joint ASCE/American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers Committee. Stanley Kaplan, principal of Kaplan & Associates, Inc., is one of the early practitioners of the discipline now known as Quantitative Risk Assessment and a major contributor to its theory, language, philosophy and methodology. Dr. Kaplan is a Fellow of the Society for Risk Analysis and the author of a number of the seminal papers in this field. He is one of the first contributors to the Russian science TRIZ, the Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems, and currently consults and teaches in this area. He is a founder and board chairman of Bayesian Systems, Inc., a Washington-based company developing diagnostic, decision, simulation, and business management software. Dr. Kaplan is the recipient of several awards and honors, including the Society for Risk Analysis Distinguished Achievement Award in 1996. Dr. Kaplan was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1999. Howard M. ‘Skip' Kingston is professor of chemistry in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and in the Center for Environmental Research and Education. Also at Duquesne University, he is director of the Center for Microwave and Analytical Chemistry. His research interests include the development, automation, and standard encapsulation and transfer of analytical analysis methods. For the past several years, he has been actively involved in advancing the area of microwave sample preparation through basic research and the development of procedures that have been adopted by the EPA as standard methods. From 1976 to 1991 he was a supervisory research chemist in the Inorganic Analytical Research Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he conceived and managed the Consortium on Automated Analytical Laboratory Systems dedicated to developing automated analytical capability for industry. He has received numerous awards for his pioneering work in several areas, including R&D 100 Awards in 1996 and 1998, the IR 100 Award in 1987, the 1988 “Pioneer in Laboratory Robotics” award, the 1990 NIST Applied Research Award, the Department of Commerce Bronze Medal in 1990, the Award of Merit from the Federal Laboratory Consortium in 1991, and the EPA RCRA Service to Others Award in 1998. He has co-edited and co-authored the American Chemical Society professional reference texts Introduction to Microwave Sample Preparation: Theory and Practice (1988) and Microwave Enhanced Chemistry: Fundamentals, Sample Preparation, and Applications (1997). 40

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Page 105He holds multiple patents in the field of speciation, microwave chemistry, and chelation chromatography. W. John Lee, Peterson Chair and professor of petroleum engineering at Texas A&M University and formerly executive vice-president of technology at S. A. Holditch & Associates, Inc., has expertise in petroleum reservoir imaging, flow tests in low-permeability formations, and enhanced recovery practices. Professor Lee was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1993. Milton Levenson, independent consultant, is a chemical engineer with over 50 years of experience in nuclear energy and related fields. His technical experience includes work in nuclear safety, fuel cycle, water reactor technology, advanced reactor technology, remote control technology, and sodium reactor technology. His professional experience includes research and operations positions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Bechtel. Mr. Levenson is the past president of the American Nuclear Society; a fellow of the American Nuclear Society and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers; and the recipient of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers' Robert E. Wilson Award. He is the author of over 150 publications and presentations and holds three U.S. patents. He received his B.Ch.E. from the University of Minnesota. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1976. Werner F. Lutze, professor of chemical and nuclear engineering at the University of New Mexico and director of the UNM Center for Radioactive Waste Management (CeRaM), has over 25 years of research experience in materials science and geochemical issues relevant to the management of radioactive wastes, including selective mineral ion-exchange processes, repository near-field chemistry, waste form development, and trace analyses. He has published widely on weapons plutonium immobilization, waste disposal, and the chemistry of nuclear materials. Professor Lutze is a member of several professional organizations, including the Materials Research Society, the German Nuclear Society, and Sigma Xi. Kimberly Ogden, associate professor of chemical and environmental engineering at the University of Arizona, has conducted research with Los Alamos National Laboratory collaborators to design treatment methods for remediating hazardous waste sites containing both toxic metals and organics, including plutonium-cellulose mixtures. She is also engaged in collaborations with ECO Compliance Inc. in preparing proposals and reports for the remediation of hazardous waste sites. Professor Ogden has authored or co-authored several book chapters, papers, and presentations in environmental science and technology. She is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Chemical Society. Martha Scott, associate professor of oceanography at Texas A&M University, is a researcher in marine radiochemistry and geochemistry. Her 41

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Page 106present research involves radionuclide distribution in the Russian Arctic. Her work has dealt with the interaction between oceans and rivers, transport of materials in the marine environment, and chemistry of manganese nodules. The behavior of plutonium isotopes in rivers, estuaries, and marine sediments has been one of her longstanding research interests. She served for two years as an associate program director for chemical oceanography at the National Science Foundation (1992-1993). She received the Ph.D. degree from Rice University and was a National Science Foundation post doctoral fellow at Yale University. John M. Sharp, Chevron Centennial Professor of Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, leads an active research program in hydrology. Professor Sharp has authored and co-authored over 200 journal articles, books, reports, and presentations. He is a fellow of the Geological Society of America and recipient of its O.E. Meinzer award (1979) and the American Institute of Hydrology's C.V. Theis Award (1996). Dr. Sharp is the current editor of Environmental and Engineering Geoscience. He received his B. Geological E. with Distinction from the University of Minnesota and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Geology from the University of Illinois. Paul G. Shewmon, emeritus professor of materials science and engineering at the Ohio State University, received a B.S. degree in metallurgical engineering from the University of Illinois and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, also in metallurgical engineering, from the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He recently retired as Humbolt Senior Scientist at the Max Planck Institute Metallforschung in Stuttgart. He has received the ASM deMille Campbell Lecture and Award and the TMS Institute of Metals Lecture & Mehl Medal. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1979. James Watson, Jr., professor of environmental sciences and engineering and the Director of the Air, Radiation, and Industrial Hygiene Program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, holds an M.S. degree in physics from North Carolina State University and a Ph.D in environmental sciences and engineering from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Professor Watson is accomplished in the fields of environmental radioactivity and radioactive waste management. He has received the Underwood and McGavran Awards for excellence in teaching and the Greenberg Alumni Endowment Award for excellence in teaching, research, and service. He is a past president of the Health Physics Society and a past chairman of the Radiological Health Section of the American Public Health Association. He has served on the Environmental Protection Agency's Radiation Advisory Committee and the executive committee of the agency's Science Advisory Board. He is a past chairman of the North Carolina Radiation Protection Commission and currently chairs the commission's Committee on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. Ching H. Yew, an independent consultant and emeritus professor from The University of Texas at Austin, has specialized in the study of hydraulic fracturing and borehole stability. Dr. Yew is a fellow of the America Society of Mechanical Engineers and a member of the Society of Petroleum 42

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Page 107Engineers. Dr. Yew has authored a text and published several articles concerning hydraulic fracturing and borehole stability. The computer code developed by him has been adopted for field use by many oil and gas industries. 43

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Page 108 Appendix D Acronyms ALARA as low as reasonably achievable ATMX Atchison Topeka Munitions private railcar CFR Code of the Federal Regulations CEMRC Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring Research Center DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOT U.S. Department of Transportation EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency NORM naturally occurring radioactive material NRC National Research Council RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act TRANSCOM TRANSportation Tracking and COMmunication system TRU transuranic TRUPACT TRansUranic PACkage Transporter USNRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission WIPP Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 44