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  • 1. EPA should act (via an administrative rule) to incorporate the elements of adaptive implementation into TMDL guidelines and regulations. To increase the scientific foundation of the TMDL program, the scientific method, which is embodied by the adaptive implementation approach, must be applied to water quality planning.
  • 2. If Congress and EPA want to improve the scientific basis of the TMDL program, then the policy barriers that currently inhibit adoption of an adaptive implementation approach to the TMDL program should be addressed. This includes the issues of future growth, the equitable distribution of cost and responsibility among sources of pollution, and EPA oversight.


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EPA. 1994 . Water Quality Standards Handbook: Second Edition. EPA 823-B-94-005a. Washington, DC : EPA Office of Water .

Houck, O. A. 1999 . The Clean Water Act TMDL Program: Law, Policy, and Implementation. Washington, DC : Environmental Law Institute .

Novotny, V., J. Braden, D. White, A Capodaglio, R. Schonter, R. Larson, and K. Algozin. 1997 . A Comprehensive UAA Technical Reference. 91-NPS-1. Alexandria, VA : Water Environment Research Foundation .

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Reckhow, K. H. 1985 . Decision Theory Applied to Lake Management. In: Proceedings of the North American Lake Management Society Conference, p. 196–200 .

Robinson, A. R., and P. F. J. Lermusiaux. 2000 . Overview of data assimilation. Harvard Reports in Physical/Interdisciplinary Ocean Science. Number 62. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University . 19p.

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