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designated uses are expressed with more detail and are appropriately tiered, the criterion can be more readily related to the use. However, criteria should not be adopted based solely on the ease of measurement in making this link.

  • 3. Expectations for the contribution of “science” to water quality management need to be tempered by an understanding that uncertainty cannot be eliminated. In both the assessment and planning processes, even the best available tools cannot banish uncertainty stemming from the variability of natural systems.


Karr, J. R. 1990 . Bioassessment and Non-Point Source Pollution: An Overview. Pages 4-1 to 4-18 in Second National Symposium on Water Quality Assessment. Washington, DC : EPA Office of Water .

National Research Council (NRC). 1992 . Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Washington, DC : National Academy Press .

Stewart, T. R. 2000 . Uncertainty, judgment, and error in prediction. In Prediction: Science, Decision Making, and the Future of Nature. D. Sarewitz, R. A. Pielke Jr., and R. Byerly Jr., eds. Washington, DC : Island Press .

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