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References

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Ahmedzai S. 1998 . Palliation of respiratory symptoms. In Doyle D, Hanks GWC, MacDonald N(eds.): Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine ( 2nd edition). New York : Oxford University Press ; pp. 583-616.

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Cancer care during the last phase of life. JCO 1998; 16(5): 1986-1996.

Begg L. NCI Cancer Training Branch. Personal communication to Hellen Gelband, June 2000.

Cassel CK, Foley KM. 1999 . Principles for Care of Patients at the End of Life: An Emerging Consensus among the Specialties of Medicine . New York : Milbank Memorial Fund , 32 pp.

Christ GH, Sormanti M. Advancing social work practice in end-of-life care. Social Work in Health Care 1999; 30(2): 81-99.

Christakis NA, Escarce JJ. Survival of Medicare patients after enrollment in hospice programs. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 338: 172-178.

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Emanuel EJ, Fairclough D, Clarridge BC, Blum D, Bruera E, Penley WC, Schnipper LE, Mayer RJ. Attitudes and practices of U.S. oncologists regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Ann Intern Med 2000a Oct 3; 133(7): 527-532.

Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL, Slutsman J, Emanuel LL. Understanding economic and other burdens of terminal illness: the experience of patients and their caregivers. Ann Intern Med 2000b Mar 21; 132(6): 451-459.



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Page 48 References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). 2001 . Management of Cancer Pain . Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 35. AHRQ Publication No. 01-E033, January 20001. Rockville, MD : Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality . http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/canpainsum.htm. Ahmedzai S. 1998 . Palliation of respiratory symptoms. In Doyle D, Hanks GWC, MacDonald N(eds.): Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine ( 2nd edition). New York : Oxford University Press ; pp. 583-616. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Cancer care during the last phase of life. JCO 1998; 16(5): 1986-1996. Begg L. NCI Cancer Training Branch. Personal communication to Hellen Gelband, June 2000. Cassel CK, Foley KM. 1999 . Principles for Care of Patients at the End of Life: An Emerging Consensus among the Specialties of Medicine . New York : Milbank Memorial Fund , 32 pp. Christ GH, Sormanti M. Advancing social work practice in end-of-life care. Social Work in Health Care 1999; 30(2): 81-99. Christakis NA, Escarce JJ. Survival of Medicare patients after enrollment in hospice programs. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 338: 172-178. Colbert K. National Cancer Institute Budget Office. Personal communication to Hellen Gelband, August 2000. Donnelly S, Walsh D. The symptoms of advanced cancer. Semin Oncol 1995; 22: 67-72. Emanuel, EJ. National Cancer Institute. Unpublished data, 2000. Emanuel EJ, Fairclough D, Clarridge BC, Blum D, Bruera E, Penley WC, Schnipper LE, Mayer RJ. Attitudes and practices of U.S. oncologists regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Ann Intern Med 2000a Oct 3; 133(7): 527-532. Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL, Slutsman J, Emanuel LL. Understanding economic and other burdens of terminal illness: the experience of patients and their caregivers. Ann Intern Med 2000b Mar 21; 132(6): 451-459.

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Page 49 Ferrell B, Virani R, Grant M, et al. Beyond the Supreme Court decision: nursing perspectives on end-of-life care. Oncology Nursing Forum 2000; 27(3): 445-455 . Freeman HP, Payne R. Racial injustice in health care. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 1045-1047 . Hilden JM, Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL, Link MP, Foley KM, Clarridge BC, Schnipper LE, Mayer RJ. Attitudes and practices among pediatric oncologists regarding end-of-life care: results of the 1998 American Society of Clinical Oncology survey. JCO 2001; 19: 205-212 . Hogan C, Lynn J, Gabel J, Lunney J, O'Mara A, Wilkinson A. 2000 A statistical profile of decedents in the Medicare program . Washington, D.C. , Medicare Payment Advisory Commission . Hudgings C. National Institute on Nursing Research, personal communication to Hellen Gelband, 2000. Institute of Medicine (IOM). 1997 . Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life , Field MJ, Cassel CK, eds. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press . IOM. 1999 . Ensuring Quality Cancer Care , Hewitt M, Simone JV, eds. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press . IOM. 2000 . Enhancing Data Systems to Improve the Quality of Cancer Care , Hewitt M, Simone JV, eds. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press . Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Background on the Development of the Joint Commission Standards on Pain Management, July 31, 2000. JCAHO Web site, http://www.jcaho.org/trkhco_frm.html. Lagnado L. Rules are rules: hospice's patients beat the odds, so Medicare decides to crack down—terminally ill who don't die within a 6-month period risk losing coverage—Al Ouimet's 9-year survival. Wall Street Journal June 5 , 2000. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC). 1999 . Report to the Congress: Selected Medicare Issues . Washington, D.C. : MedPAC . MedPAC. 2000 . Medicare Beneficiaries' Costs and Use of Care in the Last Year of Life . Washington, D.C. : MedPAC . Morrison RS, Wallenstein S, Natale DK, et al. “We don't carry that”—failure of pharmacies in predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods to stock opioid analgesics. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 1023-1026 . NHPCO (National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization). Facts and figures on hospice care in America. NHPCO Web site, January 10, 2001. www.nhpco.org. Pfeifer MP, et al. The discussion of end-of-life medical care by primary care patients and physicians: a multicenter study using structured qualitative interviews. Journal of General Internal Medicine; 1994 ; 9(2): 82-88 . Phillips RS, Hamel MB, Covinsky KE, Lynn J. Findings from SUPPORT and HELP: an introduction. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2000; 48: S1-S5 . President's Cancer Panel. 1998 . Cancer Care Issues in the United States: Quality of Care, Quality of Life . NCI Web site, http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/ADVISORY/pcp/pcp97-98rpt/pcp97-98rpt.htm#letter. Schroeder SA. The legacy of SUPPORT. Annals of Internal Medicine 1999; 131(10): 780-782 . Singer PA, Martin DK, Kelner M. Quality end of life care—patients' perspectives. JAMA 1999; 281: 163-168 . SUPPORT Principal Investigators. A controlled trial to improve care for seriously ill hospitalized patients. JAMA 1995; 274(20): 1591-1598 . World Health Organization. 1990 . Cancer Pain Relief and Palliative Care . World Health Organization Technical Report Series 804. Geneva .

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