Tolle SW, Rosenfeld AG, Tilden VP, Park Y. Oregon’s low in-hospital death rates: what determines where people die and satisfaction with decisions on place of death? Ann Intern Med 1999; 130(8):681–685.

Truog RD, Berde CB, Mitchell C, Grier HE. Barbiturates in the care of the terminally ill [see comments]. N Engl J Med 1992; 327(23):1678–1682.

Turner K, Chye R, Aggarwal G, Philip J, Skeels A, Lickiss JN. Dignity in dying: a preliminary study of patients in the last three days of life. J Palliat Care 1996; 12(2):7–13.

Vainio A, Auvinen A. Prevalence of symptoms among patients with advanced cancer: an international collaborative study. Symptom Prevalence Group. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996; 12(1):3–10.

van der Molen B. Dyspnoea: a study of measurement instruments for the assessment of dyspnoea and their application for patients with advanced cancer. J Adv Nurs 1995; 22(5):948–956.

Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C, Bianchi M, Sbanotto A, De Conno F. A randomized study on oral administration of morphine and methadone in the treatment of cancer pain . J Pain Symptom Manage 1986; 1(4):203–207.

Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C, De Conno F, Tamburini M, Cassileth BR. Symptom prevalence and control during cancer patients’ last days of life [see comments]. J Palliat Care 1990; 6(3):7–11.

Ventafridda V, Saita L, Barletta L, Sbanotto A, De Conno F. Clinical observations on controlled-release morphine in cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1989; 4(3):124–129.


Weissman DE, Griffie J, Muchka S, Matson S. Building an institutional commitment to pain management in long-term care facilities. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000; 20(1):35–43.

Wenger NS, Oye RK, Bellamy PE, et al. Prior capacity of patients lacking decision making ability early in hospitalization: implications for advance directive administration. The SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. J Gen Intern Med 1994; 9(10):539–543.

Wennberg JE (ed.). 1998. The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care 1998. Dartmouth, N.H.: American Hospital Association.

Wolfe J, Grier HE, Klar N, et al. Symptoms and suffering at the end of life in children with cancer [see comments]. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(5):326–333.

World Health Organization. 1990. Cancer Pain Relief and Palliative Care: Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Technical Report Series No. 804. Geneva: World Health Organization.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement