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Page i Occupational Health and Workplace Monitoring at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAD19-01-C-0001 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07575-0 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC , 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Page iii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Page v COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM PETER B. LEDERMAN, Chair, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), Newark CHARLES I. MCGINNIS, Vice Chair, consultant, Charlottesville, Virginia DAVID H. ARCHER, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PIERO M. ARMENANTE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark JERRY L.R. CHANDLER, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia JOHN J. COSTOLNICK, Exxon Chemical Company (retired), Houston, Texas FRANK P. CRIMI, Lockheed Martin (retired), Saratoga, California J. ROBERT GIBSON, DuPont Life Sciences, Wilmington, Delaware (until 12/31/00) MICHAEL R. GREENBERG, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick DEBORAH L. GRUBBE, DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID A. HOECKE, Enercon Systems, Inc., Elyria, Ohio DAVID H. JOHNSON, EQE International, Inc., Irvine, California CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts (until 12/31/00) GARY L. LAGE, ToxiLogics, Inc., Titusville, New Jersey JAMES F. MATHIS, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas FREDERICK G. POHLAND, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROBERT B. PUYEAR, consultant, Chesterfield, Missouri CHARLES F. REINHARDT, DuPont Company (retired), Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania KENNETH F. REINSCHMIDT, consultant, Littleton, Massachusetts W. LEIGH SHORT, URS Greiner Woodward-Clyde (retired), Mount Pleasant, South Carolina JEFFREY I. STEINFELD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CHADWICK A. TOLMAN, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM TUMAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (until 2/20/01) Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia Staff DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Program Officer DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Senior Project Assistant
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Page vi BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM H. FORSTER, Chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering, Glendale, California PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc., Columbus, Indiana HENRY J. HATCH, American Society of Civil Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Naperville, Illinois GERALD J. IAFRATE, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International, Alexandria, Virginia KATHRYN V. LOGAN, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi JOHN E. MILLER, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F. ROSE, Radiance Technologies, Huntsville, Alabama GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Associate Director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant
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Page vii Preface The United States has maintained a stockpile of chemical warfare agents and munitions for more than half a century. In 1985, Public Law 99-145 mandated an expedited effort to dispose of M55 rockets containing unitary chemical warfare agents because of their potential for self-ignition. This program soon expanded to become the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), with the mission of eliminating the entire stockpile of unitary chemical agents and munitions. The Army developed the baseline incineration system for that purpose. Since 1987, the National Research Council, through the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee), has provided technical and scientific advice and counsel to the Army's disposal program and has endorsed the baseline incineration system as an adequate technology for destroying the stockpile. In 1992, after setting several intermediate goals and dates, Congress enacted Public Law 102-484, which directed the Army to dispose of the entire stockpile by December 31, 2004, a deadline that was changed to April 29, 2007, after the United States ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention. We wish to express our appreciation to the members of the Stockpile Committee who helped in the preparation of this report by collecting significant data and information, making site visits to existing facilities and facilities under construction, and writing the report. Charles E. Kolb took the lead for the study, working closely with David H. Archer, J. Robert Gibson, Charles F. Reinhardt, and Chadwick A. Tolman. The committee is also grateful to the Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization and its contractors for the useful information they provided. The committee greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members Donald L. Siebenaler, Harrison T. Pannella, William E. Campbell, Daniel E.J. Talmage, Jr., and Carol R. Arenberg in the production of this report. Peter B. Lederman, Chair Charles I. McGinnis, Vice Chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program
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Page ix Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jonathan Borak, Yale University William L. Budde, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Philip K. Hopke, Clarkson University Steven Markowitz, Queens College Lewis D. Pepper, Boston University School of Public Health Sylvia S. Talmage, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mark Cullen, Yale University, appointed by the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Page xi Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 3 Chemical Agent and Munitions Stockpile, 3 Call for Disposal, 5 Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, 5 Chemical Weapons Convention, 5 Disposal Technology, 5 Chemical Demilitarization Workforce, 6 Role of the Stockpile Committee, 8 Statement of Task and Content of Report, 9 2 WORKPLACE CHEMICAL MONITORING 10 Monitoring Considerations, 10 Monitoring for Airborne Agent, 11 Description, 11 Exposure Limits and Process Control Levels, 12 Assessment, 13 Monitoring Agent in Liquids and Solids, 13 Monitoring Nonagent Chemicals in Air, 14 Agent Breakdown Products and Contaminants in Liquids, 15 Solids Contamination: Special Considerations Related to Closure, 19 3 HEALTH MONITORING 20 Function of an Occupational and Environmental Health Program, 20 A Generic Program, 21 Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Occupational Health Program, 23 Overview, 23 Assessment and Evaluation, 23 Developments in Medical Diagnostic Techniques, 25
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Page xii 4 DATA UTILIZATION AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT 26 Data Requirements, 26 Correlating Time/Activity and Chemical Concentration Records, 27 Employee Health Information and Workplace Monitoring Data, 28 Standards for Electronic Databases, 28 5 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 29 REFERENCES 32 APPENDIXES A Reports by the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) 37 B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 39
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Page xiii List of Figures and Tables FIGURES 1-1 Location and size (percentage of original stockpile) of eight continental U.S. storage sites, 4 1-2 Schematic drawing of the TOCDF incineration system, 7 2-1 Simplified scheme for the hydrolysis of GB, 17 2-2 Hydrolysis of stabilizer N-N′-diisopropyl carbodiimide, 17 2-3 Simplified scheme for the hydrolysis of VX, 17 2-4 Major hydrolysis pathways for mustard, 18 TABLES 1-1 Projected Employment Totals for Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities, 8 2-1 Media That May Require Chemical Monitoring, 10 2-2 Airborne and Related Exposure Limits and Process Control Levels, 12 2-3 Physical Properties of Agents and Major Hydrolysis Products, 16
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Page xiv Acronyms ACAMS automatic continuous air monitoring system ACOEM American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System CAS Chemical Abstracts Service CEMS continuous emission monitoring system CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CWC Chemical Weapons Convention DAAMS depot area air monitoring system DCD Deseret Chemical Depot DESH 2-diisopropyl ethyl mercaptoamine DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DPE demilitarization protective ensemble DRE destruction and removal efficiency DSHW Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste EA-2192 S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioc acid EMPA ethyl methylphosphonic acid EPA Environmental Protection Agency GA tabun (a nerve agent) GB sarin (a nerve agent) H mustard: Levinstein mustard: mixture of 70 percent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide and 30 percent sulfur impurities HD distilled mustard: bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide HRA health risk assessment HT vesicant mixture: 60 percent bis (2-chloroethyl)sulfide and 40 percent bis[2(2-chloroethylthio)ethyl] ether IMPA isopropyl methylphosphonic acid IT-SIMS ion-trap secondary ion mass spectometry JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System MDB munitions demilitarization building MPA methylphosphonic acid NOx nitrogen oxide NRC National Research Council OPIDN organophosphorous-induced delayed neuropathy OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PAS pollution abatement system PDAR process data acquisition recording PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization PRP personnel reliability program QAPP Quality Assurance Program Plan QRA quantitative risk assessment SCWO supercritical water oxidation SOPC substance of potential concern T bis[2(2-chloroethylthio)ethyl] ether TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility VX a nerve agent