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act as separate entities and we are not going to have the connection we need to solve some of these problems.

To do genetic engineering on a natural microbe, such as an epithermophilic or mesophilic bacteria we find underground, is almost impossible. No one wants to talk to us about that kind of issue. They only want to see us use it as a means to remediate a contaminated zone. We have got to go back to a point where we can start understanding the chemical and metabolic processes of these kinds of microbes before we can even begin to attempt to do the fixation. Yet they are out there. That is the key issue.

Closing Remarks.

Tobin Marks, Northwestern University: Let me say a few things as the co-organizer. First of all, I find that I have come away tremendously stimulated. I have learned a great deal. I have gained a new perspective on how important the carbon management issue it is, how complex it is, how difficult it is to discern green versus non-green, and what the life-cycle analyses are. I have learned a great many things.

I came away also with the feeling that there really is a need for a very broad agenda—one that is molecularly, macromolecularly, and biologically oriented. I think there is a need for mechanisms that will stimulate interdisciplinary research, maybe through centers, but also stimulate interdisciplinary education in terms of preparing a work force that can attack these kinds of problems. So this is one thing that I thought was really terrific about this workshop, and we sincerely thank all of the speakers for their contributions.

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