Carol Creutz is senior chemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Dr. Creutz received her B.S. in chemistry in 1966 from the University of California, Los Angeles, and her Ph.D. 1971 in chemistry from Stanford University. She was an assistant professor at Georgetown University from 1970 to 1971 before joining the staff at Brookhaven National Laboratory Chemistry Department, where she served as chair from 1995 to 2000. Her professional activities include service on the Chemistry Research Evaluation Panel for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (1979-1983); member of the Editorial Board, Inorganic Chemistry (1988-1991); councilor, American Chemical Society, Inorganic Division (1992-1995); member of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in the Laboratory (1992-1995); and member of the National Research Council Committee on Design, Construction and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities (1998-1999).
Dr. Creutz's research interests include kinetics and mechanisms of ground and excited-state reactions of transition metal complexes, homogeneous catalysis in water, and charge transfer processes in nanoscale clusters.
James A. Edmonds is a chief scientist and technical leader of economic programs at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Dr. Edmonds heads an international global change research program at PNNL with active collaborations in more than a dozen institutions and countries. Dr. Edmonds is well known for his contributions to the integrated assessment of climate change—the examination of interactions between energy, technology, policy, and the environment. He has expounded extensively on the subject of global change including books, papers, and presentations. His books on the subject of global change include Global Energy Assessing the Future, with John Reilly (Oxford University Press). His book with Don Wuebbles, A Primer on Greenhouse Gases, won the scientific book of the year award at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He presently serves as a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) third assessment report, currently under way.
Dr. Edmonds's current research focuses on the application of integrated assessment models to the development of a long-term, global energy technology strategy to address climate change. His Global
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Page 214 B Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers Carol Creutz is senior chemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Dr. Creutz received her B.S. in chemistry in 1966 from the University of California, Los Angeles, and her Ph.D. 1971 in chemistry from Stanford University. She was an assistant professor at Georgetown University from 1970 to 1971 before joining the staff at Brookhaven National Laboratory Chemistry Department, where she served as chair from 1995 to 2000. Her professional activities include service on the Chemistry Research Evaluation Panel for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (1979-1983); member of the Editorial Board, Inorganic Chemistry (1988-1991); councilor, American Chemical Society, Inorganic Division (1992-1995); member of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Chemicals in the Laboratory (1992-1995); and member of the National Research Council Committee on Design, Construction and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities (1998-1999). Dr. Creutz's research interests include kinetics and mechanisms of ground and excited-state reactions of transition metal complexes, homogeneous catalysis in water, and charge transfer processes in nanoscale clusters. James A. Edmonds is a chief scientist and technical leader of economic programs at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Dr. Edmonds heads an international global change research program at PNNL with active collaborations in more than a dozen institutions and countries. Dr. Edmonds is well known for his contributions to the integrated assessment of climate change—the examination of interactions between energy, technology, policy, and the environment. He has expounded extensively on the subject of global change including books, papers, and presentations. His books on the subject of global change include Global Energy Assessing the Future, with John Reilly (Oxford University Press). His book with Don Wuebbles, A Primer on Greenhouse Gases, won the scientific book of the year award at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He presently serves as a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) third assessment report, currently under way. Dr. Edmonds's current research focuses on the application of integrated assessment models to the development of a long-term, global energy technology strategy to address climate change. His Global
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Page 215Climate Change Group at PNNL received the Director's Award for Research Excellence in 1995. In 1997, Dr. Edmonds received the BER50 Award from the U. S. Department of Energy in recognition of his research accomplishments, and he recently received the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum Hall of Fame Award (2000). Dr. Edmonds was trained as an economist with a B.A. from Kalamazoo College (1969) and M.A. (1972) and Ph.D. (1974) from Duke University. Dr. Brian P. Flannery is science, strategy and programs manager in the Safety, Health and Environment Department, Exxon Mobil Corporation. Before joining Exxon he received degrees in astrophysics from Princeton (B.A. 1970) and from the University of California Santa Cruz (Ph.D. 1974); he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1974-1976) and was assistant and associate professor at Harvard University (1976-1980). Since joining Corporate Research, Exxon Research and Engineering Company in 1980, Flannery has worked in research, supervisory, and management roles involving theoretical science, mathematical modeling, and the environment. At Exxon he led the effort to develop a new form of microscopy utilizing synchrotron x-ray radiation to produce noninvasive, three-dimensional images of the internal structure of small objects. Flannery is coauthor of the widely used reference Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing. Since 1980, Flannery has been involved in research and policy analysis of scientific, technical, economic, and political issues related to global climate change. He served on the State-of-the-Art Review of Greenhouse Science of the U.S. Department of Energy 1984-1986, where he coauthored the chapter on transient climate change. He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Subcommittee on Climate Change of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1988-1990). He served on the editorial committee of Annual Reviews of Energy and Environment, and Consequences, and he was a member of the Evaluation Committee of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Currently he participates in the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC as lead author in Working Group III. Through the Global Climate Change Working Group of the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, Flannery has organized international seminars, workshops, and symposia that address scientific, technical, social, economic, and policy aspects of global climate change. These include the 1992 Rome symposium, Global Change: A Petroleum Industry Perspective, the 1993 Lisbon Experts Workshop Socio-Economic Assessment of Global Climate Change, the 1996 Paris symposium Critical Issues in the Economics of Climate Change, and the 1999 Milan workshop Kyoto Mechanisms and Compliance. On behalf of industry he participates as an observer at meetings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). John W. Frost is a professor in the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and director of the Center for Plant Products and Technologies at Michigan State University. He received his B.S. in chemistry from Purdue University and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University. The Frost group genetically engineers and uses recombinant microbes as synthetic catalysts and interfaces this type of biocatalysis with chemical catalysis. His research has focused on elaborating microbe-catalyzed syntheses of starting materials critical to the manufacture of pharmaceuticals as a replacement for the current isolation of these starting materials from exotic natural sources. Hoffmann La Roche is currently employing a Frost group microbe commercially to synthesize shikimic acid, which is the starting material used in the manufacture of the anti-influenza drug Tamiflu. Frost group research is also directed toward employing recombinant microbes in syntheses of larger-volume chemicals including adipic acid, catechol, hydroquinone, and vanillin. These microbe-catalyzed syntheses exploit renewable feedstocks (starch, cellulose, hemicellu-
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Page 216lose) and nontoxic starting materials (glucose, xylose, arabinose, glycerol) as sustainable, environmentally benign alternatives to the nonrenewable feedstocks (petroleum) and toxic starting materials (benzene, toluene) that are currently employed in chemical manufacture. Professor Frost and his wife and collaborator, Professor Karen M. Frost, were awarded the Presidential Green Challenge Award for these research efforts. Patrick R. Gruber is currently vice president and chief technology officer, Cargill Dow LLC, a joint venture between Cargill, Incorporated, and Dow Chemical. Dr. Gruber began working with Cargill Dow in 1997 and has served as vice president since Cargill Dow's formation. Dr. Gruber joined Cargill Dow full-time beginning in January 2000. During his tenure at Cargill he served in a wide range of roles in the technology and business development area. Dr. Gruber has spent his career developing technology and business opportunities in the area of chemical products made from renewable resources targeted to animal feed products, food ingredients, and industrial chemicals. Dr. Gruber has served on strategy and business teams at the division level of Cargill. From 1995 to 1998 he was director of technology development for Cargill's bioproducts areas. From 1998 through 1999, he served as technical director of Cargill's BioScience Division where as a member of the Business Management Team, he was involved with identifying and starting up a variety of new businesses, as well as building capability in the food products and animal nutrition area. Before joining Cargill Dow, Dr. Gruber was president of Lactech, a technology development company that successfully developed lactic acid technology, which was licensed to Cargill, Incorporated. In 1989 he was named leader of Cargill's renewable bioplastics project with responsibility for the development and marketing of a lactic acid polymer as Nature Works. In this general management role, Gruber led the development from concept through technical and market validation, building the organization that formed the core of Cargill Dow. Dr. Gruber has 37 U.S. patents issued with more than a dozen pending. In 1998, he received Inventor of the Year Award from Minnesota Patent Lawyers. In 1993, he received R & D Magazine's Top 100 Inventions of the Year Award for advances in stabilizing enzymes. Dr. Gruber served as one of the program reviewers of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Biofuels Program (1998 and 1999). He has been counselor of Bio Environmentally Degradable Polymer Society (BEPDS) since 1997. Gruber received a bachelor's degree from the University of Saint Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1983, where he majored in chemistry and biology. He earned a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Minnesota in 1987, and he also has a master's in business administration from the Carslon School of Management at the University of Minnesota (1994). David W. Keith has been a faculty member in the Department of Engineering and Public Health at Carnegie Mellon University since 1999. His current research centers on the use of fossil fuels without atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide by means of carbon sequestration. His research aims to understand the economic and regulatory implications of this rapidly evolving technology. Questions range from near-term technology-based cost estimation, to attempts to understand the path dependency of technical evolution—for example, how would entry of carbon management into the electric sector change prospects for hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier? In addition, Dr. Keith's research interests include geoengineering, biomass energy, and the use of quantified expert judgment in policy analysis. Dr. Keith trained as an experimental physicist at MIT (Ph.D., 1991) where he developed an interferometer for atoms. During 1991-1999 he worked in atmospheric science, first at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and then at Harvard, he also a collaborated in the research program on climate related public policy at Carnegie Mellon as adjunct faculty and as an investigator in the Center
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Page 217for the Human Dimensions of Global Change. As an atmospheric scientist in Professor James Anderson' s group at Harvard, Dr. Keith led the development of a new Fourier-transform spectrometer that flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ER-2 and worked as project scientist on Arrhenius, a proposed satellite aimed at establishing an accurate benchmark of infrared radiance observations for the purpose of detecting climate change. He continues to collaborate on high-accuracy radiance measurements. Harold H. Kung is professor of chemical engineering at Northwestern University, where his areas of research include surface chemistry, catalysis, and chemical reaction engineering. His professional experience includes work as a research chemist at E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. He is recipient of the P.H. Emmett Award and the Robert Burwell Lectureship Award from the North American Catalysis Society, the Herman Pines Award of the Chicago Catalysis Club, the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship, the John McClanahan Henske Distinguished Lectureship of Yale University, and the Olaf A. Hougen Professorship at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He is editor of Applied Catalysis A: General. He has a Ph.D. in chemistry from Northwestern University. Leo E. Manzer is a DuPont fellow in DuPont's Central Science and Engineering Laboratories at the Experimental Station in Wilmington, Delaware. He was born and educated in Canada, and after receiving his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Western Ontario, Canada, in 1973, he joined DuPont in Wilmington. During his career, he has held a variety of positions in Delaware and Texas, overseeing research programs in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. He founded and directed the Corporate Catalysis Center at DuPont from 1987 to 1993. Dr. Manzer is a member of the North American Catalysis Society and is an adjunct professor in the Departments of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Delaware. He is on the editorial boards of several major catalysis journals and is actively involved in promoting the value of catalysis to society. Dr. Manzer has been involved in all aspects of catalysis in DuPont and led the research effort for the development of alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons. Dr. Manzer is the author of more than 80 publications and 60 patents. He has received a number of awards, including the 1995 Earle B. Barnes Award from the American Chemical Society for leadership in chemical research management and the 1997 Philadelphia Catalysis Society Award for excellence in catalysis. James A. Spearot was appointed director of the Chemical and Environmental Sciences Laboratory at the General Motors (GM) Research and Development Center in August 1998. His laboratory's mission is to develop cost-effective environmental strategies and systems for General Motors' products and processes. Key research areas for the laboratory include life-cycle analysis, low-cost emissions control strategies, environmental systems for advanced material processing, fuel and lubricant systems for advanced powertrains, and innovative, efficient test environments and analytical measurements. Additionally, Dr. Spearot serves as chief scientist of GM's Powertrain Division, a position he has held since November 1998. A native of Hartford, Connecticut, Dr. Spearot was born on April 26, 1945. He received a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Syracuse University in 1967 and a master's and doctorate, also in chemical engineering, from the University of Delaware, in 1970 and 1972, respectively. Dr. Spearot began his GM career in 1972 as an assistant senior research engineer in the Fuels and Lubricants Department. He held positions of increasing responsibility, including principal research
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Page 218engineer and section manager of surface and rheological studies, which led to his appointment as department head in 1992. He is a member of several organizations: the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the Society of Rheology, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). He is a former chairman of the SAE Fuels and Lubricants Division and serves on the Fluids Committee of the Engine Manufacturers Association. He also serves as chairman of the Fuels Working Group of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). His professional honors include an ASTM Award for Excellence in 1990; the Arch T. Colwell Merit Award from the SAE in 1987; and the Award for Research on Automotive Lubricants, also from the SAE, in 1987. Dr. John Stringer is the director of materials and chemistry support in the Science and Technology Development Division at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Palo Alto, California. In 1988 he was appointed director of technical support in the Generation and Storage Division, and he assumed his present post in 1991. From 1982 to 1988, he was manager of the Materials Support Program and also of the Exploratory Research Program. Before joining EPRI in 1977 as project manager in the Materials Support Program, Dr. Stringer was head of the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science at the University of Liverpool, England. From 1963 to 1966, he worked for Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio, as a fellow in the Metal Science Group. From 1957 to 1963, Dr. Stringer was a member of the teaching staff in the Department of Metallurgy at the University of Liverpool. After receiving a B.S. degree in engineering with first class honors in metallurgy from the University of Liverpool in 1955, Dr. Stringer was awarded the Ph.D. degree in 1958 and a doctor of engineering degree from the university in 1975. He is the author of two books, editor of nine others, and the author or coauthor of more than 300 papers, primarily in the areas of high-temperature oxidation and corrosion of metals and alloys, galvanomagnetic effects in alloys, and erosion and corrosion of components in fluidized-bed combustors. Dr. Stringer is a fellow of the Institute of Fuel, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, and a chartered engineer (U.K.). He is one of the first group of fellows of NACE International (formerly the National Association of Corrosion Engineers), elected in 1993, and a fellow of the Metallurgical Society of the American Institute of Metallurgical Engineers, elected in 1992. He is also a member of the American Society for Metals and of the Materials Research Society. In 1993 he was awarded the Ulick R. Evans Award of the Institute of Corrosion (U.K.) “for outstanding work in the field of corrosion.” David C. Thomas as manager of CO2 Mitigation Technology, leads BP Amoco's efforts in reducing CO2 emissions from its operations. He has held a broad range of positions in technology development, research, management, and strategy development in exploration, production, and chemicals. Dr. Thomas holds a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Oklahoma and has published more than 40 papers and 5 patents. John A. Turner, Ph.D., is a senior electrochemist in the Center for Basic Sciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. His research is primarily concerned with direct conversion (photo-electrolysis) systems for hydrogen production from water. His monolithic photovoltaic-photoelectro-chemical device has the highest efficiency of any direct-conversion water-splitting device (>12%). Other work involves the study of new materials for fuel cell separators, corrosion of bipolar plates (fuel
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Page 219cells), electrode materials for high-energy-density lithium batteries, and fundamental processes of charge transfer at semiconductor electrodes. These research projects involve electrocatalysis, new semiconductor materials, surface modification, and the development of novel experimental techniques. He is the author or coauthor of more than 50 peer-reviewed publications in the areas of photoelectrochemistry, batteries, general electrochemistry, and analytical chemistry.