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Climate Change Group at PNNL received the Director's Award for Research Excellence in 1995. In 1997, Dr. Edmonds received the BER50 Award from the U. S. Department of Energy in recognition of his research accomplishments, and he recently received the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum Hall of Fame Award (2000). Dr. Edmonds was trained as an economist with a B.A. from Kalamazoo College (1969) and M.A. (1972) and Ph.D. (1974) from Duke University.

Dr. Brian P. Flannery is science, strategy and programs manager in the Safety, Health and Environment Department, Exxon Mobil Corporation. Before joining Exxon he received degrees in astrophysics from Princeton (B.A. 1970) and from the University of California Santa Cruz (Ph.D. 1974); he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1974-1976) and was assistant and associate professor at Harvard University (1976-1980). Since joining Corporate Research, Exxon Research and Engineering Company in 1980, Flannery has worked in research, supervisory, and management roles involving theoretical science, mathematical modeling, and the environment. At Exxon he led the effort to develop a new form of microscopy utilizing synchrotron x-ray radiation to produce noninvasive, three-dimensional images of the internal structure of small objects. Flannery is coauthor of the widely used reference Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing.

Since 1980, Flannery has been involved in research and policy analysis of scientific, technical, economic, and political issues related to global climate change. He served on the State-of-the-Art Review of Greenhouse Science of the U.S. Department of Energy 1984-1986, where he coauthored the chapter on transient climate change. He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Subcommittee on Climate Change of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1988-1990). He served on the editorial committee of Annual Reviews of Energy and Environment, and Consequences, and he was a member of the Evaluation Committee of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Currently he participates in the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC as lead author in Working Group III.

Through the Global Climate Change Working Group of the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, Flannery has organized international seminars, workshops, and symposia that address scientific, technical, social, economic, and policy aspects of global climate change. These include the 1992 Rome symposium, Global Change: A Petroleum Industry Perspective, the 1993 Lisbon Experts Workshop Socio-Economic Assessment of Global Climate Change, the 1996 Paris symposium Critical Issues in the Economics of Climate Change, and the 1999 Milan workshop Kyoto Mechanisms and Compliance. On behalf of industry he participates as an observer at meetings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC).

John W. Frost is a professor in the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and director of the Center for Plant Products and Technologies at Michigan State University. He received his B.S. in chemistry from Purdue University and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University. The Frost group genetically engineers and uses recombinant microbes as synthetic catalysts and interfaces this type of biocatalysis with chemical catalysis. His research has focused on elaborating microbe-catalyzed syntheses of starting materials critical to the manufacture of pharmaceuticals as a replacement for the current isolation of these starting materials from exotic natural sources. Hoffmann La Roche is currently employing a Frost group microbe commercially to synthesize shikimic acid, which is the starting material used in the manufacture of the anti-influenza drug Tamiflu. Frost group research is also directed toward employing recombinant microbes in syntheses of larger-volume chemicals including adipic acid, catechol, hydroquinone, and vanillin. These microbe-catalyzed syntheses exploit renewable feedstocks (starch, cellulose, hemicellu-



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