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  • Improved maintenance (looking at maintenance through the lens of CO2 emissions opened up some opportunities)

  • Improved burner efficiencies and heat exchange processes

  • Glenn Crosby, Washington State University: First, a comment. I certainly am impressed with trading credits. It also gets at what is easy to do, but that's finite. In other words, you'll run through this pretty quickly if, as is suggested, two-tenths of a gigatonne of carbon is consumed as the feedstock of the chemical industry annually. Do you know if this includes all chemical production or just the chemicals themselves?

    David Thomas: To be precise, I would have to return to the original reference. My recollection is that it is the chemicals constituting the sum of the seven major chemical precursors produced from petroleum production. I don't recall if it included all chemical production or fertilizers.

    Glenn Crosby: Could you give me some feel for how many gigatonnes of carbon are used in the production of energy relative to this—that is, just for power generation, not even the transportation?

    David Thomas: The best I can say offhand is that approximately 40% of the 6 gigatonnes of anthropogenically emitted carbon annually comes from transportation, around 45% from power generation, and the remaining 15% from all other sources.

    Glenn Crosby: So there is approximately 30 times as much carbon used for power and transportation than there is actually in the production of chemicals.

    David Thomas: I believe so. The chemical industry is a relatively small emitter compared to transportation and power generation.

    Alan Wolsky, Argonne National Laboratory: In the units that come to my mind, roughly 3 quads per year are burned under distillation columns. This is the principal component of energy consumption and concomitant CO2 generation from the production of organic chemicals, including plastics.

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