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Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology

A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE

Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division of Earth and Life Studies

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Page i Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division of Earth and Life Studies National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-9630106, the National Institutes of Health under Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, and the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER14556. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Energy. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07573-4 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW NAS 273 Washington, DC 20418 202-334-2156 Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Page iv

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Page v CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE RICHARD C. ALKIRE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Chair MARION C. THURNAUER, Argonne National Laboratory, Vice Chair ALEXIS T. BELL, University of California, Berkeley DARYLE H. BUSCH, University of Kansas MARCETTA Y. DARENSBOURG, Texas A&M University MICHAEL P. DOYLE, Research Corporation BRUCE A. FINLAYSON, University of Washington MICHAEL J. GOLDBLATT, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency RICHARD M. GROSS, Dow Chemical Company ESIN GULARI, National Science Foundation L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Atofina Chemicals, Inc. ANDREW KALDOR, Exxon Mobil FLINT LEWIS, American Chemical Society MARY L. MANDICH, Bell Laboratories ROBERT S. MARIANELLI, Office of Science and Technology Policy TOBIN J. MARKS, Northwestern University JOE J. MAYHEW, Chemical Manufacturers Association WILLIAM S. MILLMAN, U.S. Department of Energy NORINE E. NOONAN, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency JANET G. OSTERYOUNG, National Science Foundation NANCY L. PARENTEAU, Organogenesis, Inc. MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institute of General Medical Sciences HRATCH G. SEMERJIAN, National Institute of Standards and Technology PETER J. STANG, University of Utah D. AMY TRAINOR, Zeneca Pharmaceuticals JEANETTE M. VAN EMON, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Exposure Research Laboratory ISIAH M. WARNER, Louisiana State University Staff RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology SCOTT C. JENKINS, National Research Council Intern

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Page vi BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY KENNETH N. RAYMOND, Co-Chair, University of California JOHN L. ANDERSON, Co-Chair, Carnegie Mellon University JOSEPH M. DESIMONE, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University CATHERINE C. FENSELAU, University of Maryland ALICE P. GAST, Stanford University RICHARD M. GROSS, Dow Chemical Company NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratory GEORGE E. KELLER II, Union Carbide Company (retired) SANGTAE KIM, Eli Lilly and Company WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University THOMAS J. MEYER, Los Alamos National Laboratory PAUL J. REIDER, Merck Research Laboratories LYNN F. SCHNEEMEYER, Bell Laboratories MARTIN B. SHERWIN, ChemVen Group, Inc. JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Kodak Company CHRISTINE S. SLOANE, General Motors Research Laboratories ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology PETER J. STANG, University of Utah JOHN C. TULLY, Yale University CHI-HUEY WONG, Scripps Research Institute STEVEN W. YATES, University of Kentucky Staff DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director RUTH MCDIARMID, Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate

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Page vii Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities. Organized by the NRC's Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. The CSR does this primarily by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national attention. The topic “Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences” was selected by the Chemical Sciences Roundtable in response to concern that the chemical sciences community should be prepared to respond in the event that a policy decision might be implemented in the area of carbon management. The workshop, entitled Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences, brought together leaders in chemistry and chemical engineering from government, academia, and industry to gather information and explore possible roles that the chemical sciences R&D community might play in identifying and addressing underlying chemical questions that might arise if government action were taken to regulate carbon dioxide output or fossil fuel consumption. The workshop focused not on the debate over whether we have seen anthropogenically driven climate change or what the climate change effects might be, but on how the chemical community could prepare for and react to a possible national policy of carbon management. The chapters in this report are the authors' own versions of their presentations, and the discussion comments were taken from a transcript of the workshop. In accord with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the NRC or any of its constituent units. Alexis T. Bell and Tobin J. Marks Workshop Organizers

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Page ix Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David C. Bonner, Rohm and Haas Company Glenn A. Crosby, Washington State University Joseph M. DeSimone, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University Gregg Marland, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Edward M. Arnett, Duke University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the organizers and the institution.

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Page xi Contents Summary 1 1     Carbon Management: The Challenge James A. Edmonds, J. F. Clarke, and J. J. Dooley (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) 7 2     Carbon Dioxide Mitigation: A Challenge for the Twenty-First Century David C. Thomas (BP Amoco Corporation) 33 3     An Industry Perspective on Carbon Management Brian P. Flannery (ExxonMobil Corporation) 44 4     Opportunities for Carbon Control in the Electric Power Industry John C. Stringer (Electric Power Research Institute) 60         Session 1 Panel Discussion, 73 5     Carbon Dioxide as a Feedstock Carol Creutz and Etsuko Fujita (Brookhaven National Laboratory) 83 6     Advanced Engine and Fuel Systems Development for Minimizing Carbon Dioxide Generation James A. Spearot (General Motors Corporation) 93 7     Renewable Energy: Generation, Storage, and Utilization John Turner (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 111

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Page xii 8     Industrial Carbon Management: An Overview David W. Keith (Carnegie Mellon University) 127         Session 2 Panel Discussion, 141 9     Managing Carbon Losses for Selective Oxidation Catalysis Leo E. Manzer (DuPont Central Research and Development) 147 10     Increasing Efficiencies for Hydrocarbon Activation Harold H. Kung (Northwestern University) 159 11     Commodity Polymers from Renewable Resources: Polyactic Acid Patrick R. Gruber (Cargill Dow LLC) 166 12     Chemicals from Plants John W. Frost, K. M. Draths, David R. Knop, Mason K. Harrup, Jessica L. Barker, and Wei Niu (Michigan State University) 185         Session 3 Panel Discussion, 197 Appendixes     A     Workshop Participants 211     B     Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers 214     C     Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable 220     D     Acronyms and Definitions 222