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Dextrins. Partial degradation products of starch digestion that are fully digestible in the human small intestine. Sometimes referred to as maltodextrins. Dextrins are not to be confused with resistant maltodextrins.

Fructan. Fructan is a general term for any carbohydrate consisting of linear or branched fructose polymers that constitute the majority of the glycosidic units.

Fructooligosaccharide. See oligofructose.

Galactooligosaccharide. Galactooligosaccharides are nondigestible oligosaccharides (3 to 10 degrees of polymerization) composed of galactose units that escape digestion in the stomach and small intestine and arrive in the colon.

Gums. Gums consist of a diverse group of water soluble polysaccharides usually isolated from seeds and typically viscous in aqueous solution.

Hemicelluloses. Hemicelluloses are a group of polysaccharides found in plant cell walls that surround the cellulose fibers. These polymers can be linear or branched and consist of glucose, arabinose, mannose, xylose, and galacturonic acid.

Hydrocolloid. Synonym for gum (e.g., guar gum, locust bean gum, and gum arabic). Hydrocolloids are widely used in small amounts as food additives to modify textural, water retention, and rehydration properties.

Intact. As used in the definition of Dietary Fiber, intact is defined as having no relevant component removed or destroyed (Gove, 1967).

Intrinsic. As used in the definition of Dietary Fiber, intrinsic is defined as originating and included wholly within (Gove, 1967).

Inulin. Inulin is a β-(2,1)-linked fructose polymer usually terminated by a glucose unit that was originally isolated from dahlia tubers. It is a naturally occurring component of plants such as chicory and Jerusalem artichoke.

Lectins. Lectins are proteins with sugar-binding sites that can agglutinate cells and/or precipitate molecules that contain carbohydrate.

Lignin. Lignin is a highly-branched polymer comprised of phenylpropanoid units and is found within “woody” plant cell walls, covalently bound to fibrous polysaccharides.

Maillard Reaction Products. Maillard reaction products are produced by one form of nonenzymatic browning in which the carbonyl groups of acyclic sugars interact with free amino groups of amino acids. This occurs when the carbohydrate solution becomes neutral or weakly alkaline, which favors the acyclic carbonyl forms of reducing sugars.

Mixed Linkage β-Glucans. Mixed linkage β-glucans are homopolysaccharides of branched glucose residues. These β-linked D-glucopyranose polymers are

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