Polydextrose. Polydextrose is a glucose polymer produced under vacuum at a high temperature in the presence of a food acid catalyst with sorbitol as a plasticizer. It is commonly used as a bulking agent and sometimes as a sugar substitute.
Psyllium. Psyllium refers to the husk of psyllium seeds and is a very viscous mucilage in aqueous solution. The psyllium seed, also known as plantago or flea seed, is small, dark, reddish-brown, odorless, and nearly tasteless. P. ovata, known as blond or Indian plantagoa seed, is the species from which husk is usually derived. P. ramosa is known as Spanish or French psyllium seed.
Resistant Maltodextrin. Resistant maltodextrins are largely an indigestible mixture of oligo- and polysaccharides manufactured by pyrolysis and subsequent enzymatic treatment of cornstarch.
Resistant Starch. Resistant starch comprises starch and starch degradation products not digested and absorbed in the small intestine of humans. Resistant starch consists of starch not physically accessible to digestive enzymes, cooked starch in granules not accessible to digestion unless the granules are gelatinized by heating, and retrograded amylose that has been rendered resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis by processing or by cooking and cooling.
Saponin. Saponin is any plant glycoside that can be hydrolyzed to produce a carbohydrate and a sapogenin, a steroid or a triterpene component. The carbohydrate may be glucose, galactose, or a methylpentose.
Sorbitol. Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol formed by reduction of the carbonyl (aldehyde) group of glucose.
Tannins. Tannins (or tannic acid) occur naturally in many parts of plants including the roots, wood, bark, leaves, and fruit. They are responsible for the astringent taste, flavor, and color of many varieties of coffee and tea.
Viscous. A viscous compound is liquid-like but is thick and therefore has a resistance to flow.
Wax. Waxes are pliable substances that are less greasy, harder, more brittle, and contain compounds of higher molecular weight than fats. They can originate from plant, animal, mineral, or synthetic sources.