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Dietary Reference Intakes Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber


A Report of the Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber
and the
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes
Food and Nutrition Board
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Page i Dietary Reference Intakes Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber A Report of the Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Food and Nutrition Board INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by Health Canada; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282-96-0033, TO4; the Dietary Reference Intakes Private Foundation Fund, including the Dannon Institute and the International Life Sciences Institute; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors' Fund. Contributors to the Fund to date include Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc.; Kemin Foods, L.C.; M&M/Mars; Mead Johnson Nutritionals; Nabisco Foods Group; Natural Source Vitamin E Association; Roche Vitamins Inc.; U.S. Borax; and Weider Nutrition Group. The opinions or conclusions expressed herein are those of the committee and do not necessarily reflect those of the funders. International Standard Book No. 0-309-07564-5 This report is available for sale from the National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. , Box 285, Washington, DC 20055 ; call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP's online bookstore at http://www.nap.edu . For more information about the Institute of Medicine or the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM home page at http://www.iom.edu . Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii “Knowing is not enough; we must apply, Willing is not enough; we must do.” —Goethe ~ enlarge ~ INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Shaping the Future for Health

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Page iv THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Page v PANEL ON THE DEFINITION OF DIETARY FIBER JOANNE R. LUPTON (chair), Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station GEORGE C. FAHEY, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign DAVID A. JENKINS, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario JUDITH A. MARLETT, Department of Nutritional Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison JOANNE L. SLAVIN, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul JON A. STORY, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana CHRISTINE L. WILLIAMS, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, Babies and Children's Hospital of New York Consultants LEON PROSKY, Prosky Associates, Rockville, Maryland ALISON M. STEPHEN, CANTOX Health Sciences International, Mississauga, Ontario Staff PAULA R. TRUMBO, Study Director CARRIE L. HOLLOWAY, Research Assistant MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

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Page vi STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES VERNON R. YOUNG (chair), Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (vice chair), Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign LINDSAY H. ALLEN, Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis STEPHANIE A. ATKINSON, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts JOHN D. FERNSTROM, UPMC Health System Weight Management Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania SCOTT M. GRUNDY, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas SANFORD A. MILLER, Center for Food and Nutrition Policy, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM M. RAND, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts U.S. Government Liaison KATHRYN McMURRY, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. Canadian Government Liaison PETER W.F. FISCHER, Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Study Director GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant MARY POOS, Senior Program Officer SANDRA SCHLICKER, Senior Program Officer PAULA R. TRUMBO, Senior Program Officer KIMBERLY FREITAG, Research Associate ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate CARRIE L. HOLLOWAY, Research Assistant SHELLEY GOLDBERG, Senior Project Assistant

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Page vii FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD CUTBERTO GARZA (chair), Division of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ALFRED H. MERRILL, JR. (vice chair), Department of Biochemistry and Center for Nutrition and Health Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia ROBERT M. RUSSELL (vice chair), Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS (vice chair), Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania LARRY R. BEUCHAT, Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, University of Georgia, Griffin BENJAMIN CABALLERO, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville SHIRIKI KUMANYIKA, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia LYNN PARKER, Child Nutrition Programs and Nutrition Policy, Food Research and Action Center, Washington, D.C. ROSS L. PRENTICE, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington A. CATHARINE ROSS, Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBERT E. SMITH, R.E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont STEVE L. TAYLOR, Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln IOM Liaison JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Director GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant ALISON GROGAN, Financial Associate

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Page viii REVIEWERS This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Nils-Georg Asp, Lund University, Sweden; Fergus Clydesdale, University of Massachusetts at Amherst; Martin Eastwood, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland; Betty Li, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland; Michael McBurney, W.K. Kellogg Institute, Battle Creek, Michigan; and Irwin Rosenberg, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Judith Stern, University of California at Davis, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Page ix Contents I.     OVERVIEW AND CHARGE TO THE PANEL 1 II     DEFINITIONS OF DIETARY FIBER 3 III.     ISSUES IN DEFINING DIETARY FIBER 12 IV.     PROPOSED DEFINITION OF DIETARY FIBER 22 V.     IMPACT OF THE DEFINITIONS OF DIETARY FIBER AND UNRESOLVED ISSUES 26 VI.     REFERENCES 34 APPENDIX A:     Acknowledgments 43 APPENDIX B:     Glossary 45 APPENDIX C:     Development and Evolution of Methods Used to Purify and Measure Dietary Fiber 49 APPENDIX D:     Determination of Energy Values for Fibers 63

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