R&D expenditure inputs, collect data on them, and fund researchers to analyze them. Other agencies (e.g., NASA, DOD, DOE, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology) interested in the role of federal research in technological innovation, could fund or jointly fund such analyses.

Recommendation 11. Researchers, professional societies, industry associations, and federal research agencies should explore the relationships between federal research funding and other factors (e.g., population flows through the educational system, domestic and foreign student demand, labor market conditions, etc.) in the development and use of scientific and engineering talent. Only then can we evaluate the trends in student enrollment and in graduate study programs’ output and determine how to influence those trends if that is the conclusion of the analysis.

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