into mechanical work—high-temperature, high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. In most cases, hot gas is obtained by burning a fuel in air, which is why gas turbines are often referred to as combustion turbines. Because gas turbines are compact, lightweight, and simple to operate, they are widely used in jet aircraft and for electricity generation. Gas turbines are also used in university and industrial settings to produce electricity and steam. In such cases, simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of input energy to electricity and use the remaining energy to produce steam in a steam generator. For utility applications, which require maximum electric power, a combined-cycle steam turbine is added to convert steam to electricity. Advanced turbines being developed now use natural gas as the fuel but will later be designed for use with fuels derived from coal, biomass, and other energy resources. The ATS program goal is to produce more-fuel-efficient, cleaner, and lower-cost electricity turbines.
Unrefined petroleum that reaches the surface of the ground in a liquid state.
The goal of DOE’s drilling, completion, and stimulation program is to conduct R&D that will help reduce drilling costs, minimize formation damage, lower environmental impacts, and improve federal lands. Well drilling, completion, and stimulation account for the great bulk of industry’s capital costs for developing oil and natural gas and provide a rich target for cost reductions and improved practices.
In direct liquefaction, coal is liquefied by reacting it with hydrogen under pressure and temperature in a process-derived solvent. This technology has not been commercially practiced except in Germany during the Second World War to produce mostly aviation gasoline using inefficient, very-high-pressure technologies. At the end of the war, the U.S. government had a demonstration program to assess those early, first-generation direct liquefaction technologies. The fuels were found to be much too expensive, particularly in comparison to crude oil from the newly opened Middle Eastern oil fields. The U.S. government’s interest was rekindled in the 1960s, starting with limited research and development programs sponsored by the Department of the Interior (Office of Coal Research, Bureau of Mines). The program was stepped up significantly with the oil embargo of 1973.
DOE-2 is a computer program that helps evaluate the energy performance and associated operating costs of buildings through computer simulations. The computer program can also be used to evaluate the performance of new technologies and to guide research by estimating the impact of alternative R&D. Such information helps architects and developers to design and construct energy-efficient buildings in a cost-effective manner.
downstream fundamentals program:
The goal of the downstream fundamentals area of research is to develop and publish fundamental scientific data on thermodynamics, crude oil characterization, and refinery process improvements. Of particular emphasis is to provide this information to companies, universities, and laboratories that do not have internal capacity to develop the data individually.
Demand-side management programs are instituted by utilities. They include schemes such as rebates to customers for installation of energy-efficient appliances and reduced rates for nonpeak-load use of electricity to encourage customers to reduce electricity consumption overall or at certain periods.
Eastern Gas Shales Project:
The Eastern Gas Shales Project’s technology and information have achieved significant cost reductions in gas shale development and production. The reductions have helped revitalize gas shale drilling in the Appalachian Basin and foster new activity in other gas shale basins. Today, gas shales provide over 400 Bcf per year of natural gas production from numerous basins, up from 70 Bcf in 1978. Through its basic R&D, the project discovered and demonstrated that adsorption is the main gas storage mechanism and that natural fractures provide the essential flow paths in gas shales. The project also developed a series of high-value products that are now widely used by the private gas shale industry, including foam and massive hydraulic fracturing technology, oriented coring and fractigraphic analysis, and well logging in air-filled holes.
A fluorescent lamp ballast is an electrical device required for starting and operating a fluorescent lamp. The ballast provides the high voltage needed to start the lamps by initiating its discharge and then limits the current to a safe value when the discharge is established. An electronic ballast improves lighting energy efficiency by 25 percent compared with conventional magnetic ballasts. Each electronic ballast saves 20 W by replacing an 80-W magnetic ballast/lamp combination consuming 60 W. In addition, electronic ballasts are lighter and easier to install. They eliminate the flicker or hum that is sometimes experienced with magnetic ballasts.
emission control technologies:
Combustion processes produce emissions that can be reduced by emission control technologies. These technologies are designed to adjust emissions from burning fuels by applying control factors such as electrostatic precipitators and filters, or combustion modification processes.
The Environmental Technology Program sponsors research on technologies that reduce the costs of environmental compliance for the oil and natural gas industry. In addition, the program pro-